Child violent situations, how can our public school systems

Child abuse happens every year an estimated 3.3 million to 10 million children are exposed to domestic violence in their homes.(Bandura, A. Ross, D., & Ross, S. A. 1961).  Most child abuse happens in the hands of the parents or the child other caretakers. Child abuse leads to low self-esteem, emotional instability and physical pain without cause. The are various forms of abuse, by for the worst of the worst is sexual abuse of a child.  Being abused does not sentence one to a life of dispai , many rise from that. I feel as though abuse shouldn’t be allowed because it makes matters worse. Although this may be true, In modern society a child’s performance in school is considered an indicator of their abilities to create a successful future. Most children receive the love and support from their parents which contributes to adequate school performance. However, for children who are physically abused, school can add an incredible amount of pressure to an already stressful life.In reality, the term child physical abuse refers to the intentional acts of injury or harm to a person under the age of 18 by a parent or caregiver. These acts can be caused by and not limited to: hitting, slapping, kicking, stabbing, or burning. The educators and school staff must follow the policy of mandated reporting which requires them to report suspicions of child abuse to Child Protective Services (CPS) in accordance with the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA).While, this type of reporting does bring awareness to these physically violent situations, how can our public school systems further support students who are victims of physical abuse? How can we expect the children of our society to perform well at school while they are being physically abused at home? Child physical abuse creates negative issues for the child and hinders their academic achievement and behavior at school. The goal of this paper is to highlight the negative effects child physical abuse has on a child’s overall school experience including a decline in mental health and physical injury consequences. In addition to these effects, this paper will look at the aggressive behaviors that can develop because of child physical abuse and its relation to Albert Bandura’s Social Learning Theory. The paper will conclude with a discussion of how school staff and administration can improve the policy of mandated reporting by having support teams on campus.The first 18 years of a person’s life is considered the most crucial time for development due to the rapid growth rate of the body and brain. (Buckle, S. K., Lancaster, S., Powell, M. B., & Higgins, D. J. (2005). The relationship between child sexual abuse and academic achievement in a sample of adolescent psychiatric inpatients)During this time, if something interrupts the development process, major consequences could lie ahead for the person. To study the mental health consequences brought on by child physical abuse; a survey of nearly 3000 middle aged men and women who had previously reported personal instances of child physical abuse. This survey asked questions about the severity of the abuse they endured as a child, their mental health background before and after the abuse occurred, their family background, and childhood obstacles they overcame.  On the contrary, In 2007 Springer et al found that a majority of the participants in this study noted they had an increase in mental disorders such as depression, anxiety, and anger management problems following the abuse. The study shows just how detrimental child physical abuse can be because not only do these mental disorders occur during a child’s school years, but they also carry on into middle adulthood and perhaps late adulthood.The children who are victims of physical abuse are faced with a variety of mental disorders. Perhaps the most dangerous of these disorders is depression because of the life changing events that could occur because of them such as self-harm and suicide. In 2008 A study by Frojd et al looked at the correlation between depression levels and the different aspects of academic performance in ninth grade boys and girls. Frojd et al found depression in school aged children to be associated with struggles in reading, writing, concentration, self-guided performance, relationships with peers, and concentration. The highlights the fact that child physical abuse is a domino effect because the abuse leads to depression and the depression leads to low school performance.In 2005 a study by Buckle, Lancaster, Powell, and Higgins looked at the physical abuse and the implications it has on academic achievement. Buckle et al concluded that children experienced child physical abuse were at a great risk for physical health problems. In addition to this, physical abuse can lead to brain damage and mental retardation. The risk of brain damage and retardation is astounding because not only would this affect a child’s school life, but it would also affect their life as a whole. A child in a mainstream class that suffers brain damage due to a physical abuse incident may be placed in a special education class after the incident. This could be detrimental to their academic success and mental health.(Child Abuse & Neglect, 29(9), 1031-1047. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2004.12.013)In 2007 Boden, Horwood, and Fergusson examined the correlation between the child physical abuse and the education achievements later in childhood. Boden et al found that due to injuries sustained during the incidents of abuse, physically abused children had lowered reading ability, had lower IQ scores, and did not complete a higher level of education. This study illuminates the fact that the physical abuse not only affects the child at the moment the abuse happens, but has long lasting negative consequences. (Boden, J.M., Horwood L.J., Fergusson D.M., (2007). Exposure to childhood sexual and physical abuse and subsequent educational achievement outcomes. Child Abuse & Neglect, 31(1). 1101-1114)There is no telling if these children could have completed higher levels of education if they were not physically abused. Children who are victims of child physical abuse will have the bruises, scars, and possible internal injuries to show for it. In 2000 a study by Naidoo looked at the different injuries that are associated with child physical abuse. Naidoo found that 64.5 percent of these children were injured by their mothers who were under the influence of a substance such as alcohol or drugs. In addition to this, the head, face, mouth, and neck were found to be the most common injury sites for these children. The study mentioned the various injuries that were seen in the hospital including: subdural hematomas, retinal hemorrhages skull fractures, bruises, lacerations, and burns. The more serious injuries like skull fractures have the possibility of causing permanent damage. (Frojd, S.A., Nissinen, E.S., Pelkonen, M., Marttunen, M.J., Koivisto, A., Kaltiala-Heino, R. (2008). Depression and school performance in middle adolescent boys and girls. Journal of Adolescence, 31(4), 485-498.) The children that receive these types of injuries due to physical abuse do not want to go to school with bruises or burns on their face. They might feel guilty or embarrassed because they feel they did something wrong in the situation to make their parent or caregiver angry with them. More importantly, children may skip school in order to avoid going to school with a bruise on their face. It is also not uncommon for the parent or caregiver that inflicted these injuries on the child to keep the child home from school to avoid questioning from educators and school staff. Aggressive Behaviors (Cranes, M., Kuo, D., Sheridan, J., Springer K.W., (2007). Long-term physical and mental health consequences of childhood physical abuse: Results from a large population-based sample of men and women. Child Abuse and Neglect, 31(5), 517-530. doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2007.01.003.) Parents and caregivers hold a great deal of influence over their children. In 1961 A study conducted by Bandura, Ross, and Ross called The Bobo Doll Experiment tested the aggression levels in 36 boys and 36 girls between the ages of three and six. Some of these children were shown a video of aggressive behavior towards the doll while other children were shown a non-aggressive video. Bandura noticed the children that viewed the video of aggression towards the doll were more likely to imitate the acts of aggression such as hitting and kicking than the children who did not witness the aggression. This imitation became known as Bandura’s Social Learning Theory which states that children learn aggressive behavior from observational learning. In Buckle et al  found the physical abuse children receive is commonly from a parent who has a great influence over how the child interacts socially. The children then model this aggressive behavior in social situations because they have learned this type of abusive behavior is acceptable.This is a cycle is likely to have been passed down from previous generations and could possibly continue to future generations if it is not stopped. The abused children who have learned to handle situations with aggression from their parents will often act aggressively at school. According to Buckle et al. (2008) abused children often are suspended from school due to the aggressive behavior they exhibit towards others. Continuous suspensions can lower a student’s academic achievement because they are not there to learn the material covered in classes.The research reviewed in this paper clearly shows the negative impact that child physical abuse has on the overall school experience of children. Children that are exposed to the detrimental effects of physical abuse often develop mental health disorders such as depression and anxiety. (Krase, K.S. (2011). Educational Personnel as Reporters of Suspected Child Maltreatment.) Some physically abused children will experience physical consequences of abuse such as burns and scars that can spark feelings of shame and guilt. In severe cases, children can experience brain injuries that can alter their lives forever. In addition to the mental and physical injuries, children observe this abusive behavior from their parents and learn that it is an acceptable way to handle situations. Perhaps the most frightening aspect of these studies is the fact that not only do the children suffer the consequences of physical abuse as children, but they also suffer long term consequences as well which hinders their ability to reach their full academic and social potential.While mandated reporting brings awareness to the students that are obviously abused, there is cause for concern for the children who do not show outward signs of being abused. In order to further support these students experiencing abuse and creating a safe environment that goes past mandated reporting, schools need to have a support staff on campus at all times.Counseling and Support Services for Youth (CASSY) is a nonprofit therapy service currently located in various schools in the bay area. CASSY assists students with crisis intervention and provide ongoing counseling. In addition to creating an open environment, CASSY allows anonymous tips to be given from students concerned about their friends (D. Cooper, personal communication, May 4, 2014). (Children Schools, 35(3), 147-154. doi: 10.1093/cs/cdt008)This method of therapy ensures that students are more likely to be reported and kept track of because more people can report issues. If more schools were to implement this type of service, students would not only have their abuse reported, but they would have regular meetings with a licensed therapist assist with the harrowing consequences of child physical abuse.(Naidoo, S. (2000). A profile of the oro-facial injuries in child physical abuse at a children’s hospital. Child Abuse & Neglect, 24(4), 521-534.)There are 237,868 victims of sexual assault or rape in the United States every year. Several celebrities have had the misfortune of being included in this statistic. Many of them have decided to speak about their experiences to help other victims of rape move on with their lives.Oprah Gail Winfrey Talk show host Oprah Winfrey was raped by a relative when she was just 9 years old. Oprah is best known for her multi-award-winning talk show The Oprah Winfrey Show, which was the highest-rated program of its kind in history and was nationally syndicated from 1986 to 2011; the greatest black philanthropist in American history.Tyler Perry is a media mogul sitting at the top of the A-list. He is produced more than 20 plays, movies and TV shows and has rubbed elbows with entertainment elite. What a lot of people did not know what the amazing actor and director Tyler Perry was raped by the mother of a childhood friend, who held him hostage in her house until he had sex with her and for years, he had  suffered brutal physical abuse at the hands of his father and severe sexual abuse at the hands of several adults. Inside or outside the home, Tyler says he never felt safe.Gabrielle Union reveals she was raped at the age of 19 years old; she candidly opened up about a horrifying life incident that took place when she was just a teen. The actress revealed that she was raped at gunpoint. The star shared that the incident took place when she was working at a Payless shoe store. The person who raped her was an employee from another Payless store. Her attacker also robbed the store and raped another person, she shared. Union, 45, revealed that she never wanted to be labeled as a “victim.”Michael Gerard “Mike” Tyson is an American retired professional boxer. Tyson is a former undisputed heavyweight champion of the world and holds the record as the youngest boxer to win the WBC, WBA and IBF heavyweight titles at 20 years old. Tyson won his first 19 professional bouts by knockout, 12 of them in the first round. He won the WBC title in 1986 after defeating Trevor Berbick by a TKO in the second round. What a lot of people did not know about Mike Tyson is in 2014, revealed that he was sexually abused when he was seven years old; it was a one time abuse, when a man Tyson did not know briefly kidnapped him off the street.Dana Elaine Owens, better known by her stage name Queen Latifah, is an American rapper, singer, songwriter, actress, model, television producer, record producer, comedienne, and talk show host. She has long been considered one of hip-hop’s pioneer feminists. Rapper and actress Queen Latifah was sexually abused by a babysitter as a childIn conclusion Child physical abuse can be detrimental to the children who fall victim to the vicious acts. As discussed earlier, children face many obstacles such as anxiety, depression, and brain damage. These are horrible circumstances that should not be thrown at a child. The frightening cycle of aggressive behavior needs to be stopped. Now that research shows the negative consequences of this abuse, strides need to be made to assist in the lives of children who are abused.

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