CHAPTER should be done to SpEd teachers, parents and

CHAPTER 2Review of Related Literature and StudiesLocal Literature     Manlapaz & Joseph (2014) stressed that deafeducators has a significant part in the development of knowledge and skills ofits learners, and theymust give quality instruction to deaf learners and with that is thequalification and expertise of the teachers.  Student-focused pedagogy should also beremembered as a requirement for effective learning.

  Coaching and collaboration is the bestway to educate deaf students. Still other optthat an teacher to be effective must be expert in the listening andinstructional technologies and techniques that will maximize the effect for achild with hearing loss.  Aside from technological approaches, developmentof learning researchers have found that begins with the cognitive processes ofdeaf students.  That explains why auditoryand signing methods are used as foundation of successful learning experience fordeaf students.Undalok(2015) commented that the Special Education (SpEd) teachers play an importantrole for the students of the deaf children as they are looked as primarycharacter in the educational process of the pupils. This cannot be successfulifwithout the varied approaches on deaf education.The educational pedagogy in deafclasses must be given a total approach by the educators,moreover thebilingual-bicultural education for the improvement of the intellectual ability,phonological processes.Different educational approaches for the hearingimpaired should be given emphasis by the SpEd teachers; More intensiveeducational approaches /trainings should be done to SpEd teachers, parents andcaregivers; Incorporate assistive technologies in the class.

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Calbay(2012) discussed that Equal access to education is one of our basic humanrights as Filipinos. However, there were no adequate efforts to push forquality education for the Deaf students. According to the census of NationalStatistics Office (NSO) in theyear 2000, there are 123,000 Deaf Filipinos allover the country.

Many of which, live in rural areas and do not receive propereducation. On FSL issues, it is very important that the Filipino Deaf will takeour own stand regarding the language we prefer to use and the language we usein our daily conversation.  The Lack ofclosed caption or inset interpreter in television news programs and courtroomsfurther disables the Filipino Deaf. We are usually unaware of the local andnational issues occurring in different areas of the country.DEC (2011)commented that the academic set-up for the deaf in the Philippines has to shiftedfrom exclusive to inclusive education.  Thisis happening despite of challenges taking place in the area of specialeducation and the situation of deaf learners.  Without proper preparation andfacilities deaf learners are not put in the regular classes.  There are somedeaf students placed in the regular classes without sped teachers orinterpreter so to speak.

  This is a serious concern that shouldbe looked into. Like many educationalinstitutions in other countries, deaf students in public schools of thePhilippines endure the use of artificial sign systems, sign supported speechand oral methods with very little to no opportunities to express theirfrustration, difficulty and dislike with such methods.  As of the moment, precious learning thatcould spell the students success are missed and they lag behind their hearingpeers.  Clemena (2008)statedthat a common concern raised by the groups is socio-psychological—the lack ofunderstanding of the psychology of deafness, the need for immediate linkagewith theDeaf community to provide interaction opportunities for the Deafchildren and supportfor their parents, the need for guidance and counselingservices, especially in schoolswith mainstreaming programs, and the very lowself-esteem of the Deaf.At the core of the problems in Deaf education are theunresolved issues oflanguage and communication.

The lack of research on FSL andthe culture of deafness,the lack of materials on FSL, the absence of policieson the use of sign language inthe classroom, and the diverse levels of signingskills of teachers and interpreters haveled to problems in the literacy skillsof Deaf students. These also explain the restrictedaccess of the Deaf topostsecondary education and, consequently, to employment opportunities.  Another serious flaw of Deaf education isthat it has not developed a system ofconsultation with Deaf adults who couldprovide valuable