CHANGING TRENDS IN THE INSTITUTION OF MARRIAGE & THE FACTORS AFFECTING SUCH TRENDS.Name – Ashutosh Prasad B.A. LLB Roll no – C -59Marriage is divine bond between two permissible mate usually a man and a women, this divine bond is different than business, which is for the purpose of profit only. If no profit it get dissolve whereas in marriage both the mate understand each other and get through all the fun, problems jointly.
In today’s world the trends in marriage are changed, it has become more challenging to maintain a healthy marriage. Marriage should be a cultural and brotherhood festival but it is getting westernize which changes the mindset of couples and terminate the relationship between the couples. The developing India has liked the change brought to marriage. In the former days there used to be many rituals and customs that take place in marriage, and the marriages were thought as a holy bond between the couple and the families as whole.
Marriage is a base institution for family in India, as in Indian society family and offspring comes after the individual gets married.Marriage, as said above, is a very important social institution. That is why no society allows a couple quietly to pair off and start living as husband and wife.
Marriage is too important for such casual arrangement. Marriage brings a number of obligations and privileges affecting a good many people. Every society has, therefore, developed a pattern for guiding marriage. Before marriage is solemnized, its first and most important task is the choice of mates. The questions of proper choice of mates are so important that a wrong choice may for ever doom the family to unhappiness. Thought no standards of choice are laid down by the community as the selection of partners is entirely an individual affair little concerning the community, yet from time to time certain rules have been made to regulate the selection of mates.Times are changing and as well as the trends in the institution in Indian marriage and developing India like it.
In the olden days, the boy and the girl were not allowed to even see each other before marriage, they used to give their acceptance by seeing each other photograph, but eventually it gave way to online chatting, and even meeting each other in the presence of family member before marriage; then there are matrimony sites in which an individual can see what is the profession of the boy/girl from where he is, his/her income, photograph, and these changes are widely accepted a this is an era of internet were their less social interaction with one another so parent also prefer online matrimony sites rather than asking their friends or relative suggestion for marriage. Nowadays even pre wedding photo shot is also in trend, which is done months prior to the wedding. Coming back to the changes in marriage in India, we see there is an improvement in the status of women. In the contemporary times women enjoy greater economic independence , which have led to equal/mutual decision making in family , making women equally head of the family notion like man is the bread earner have also changed by dabbling responsibility of women. Women no longer are resting on their husbands. Nowadays girls are independent, educated, know their rights and hence, cannot be harassed easily. According to Indian culture the brides should change their surname to that of male. Although it show a male dominant India but the reason for such change of surname of the bride is done to show that is also a part of family and she would definitely receive love and affection from the family; although this fact is arguable as the bride can also be loved if she put her own surname nowadays we can se many women using their premarital surname and even using their marital surname.
Even recently Indian government removes the provision of changing their surname after marriage for passport; times are changing and so are laws. Law plays an important role in women empowerment section 304B in the Indian penal code state that “where the death of a women is caused by any burns/boils damages or occurs otherwise than under normal circumstances within seven years of her marriage and it is shown that soon before her death she was subjected to cruelty or harassment by her husband or any relative of her husband for, or in connection with any demand for dowry, such death shall be called “dowry death”, and such husband or relative shall be deemed to have caused her death. Explanation for the motive of the sub section, “dowry” shall have the same understanding as in section 2 of the dowry prohibition Act 1961(28 of 1961). Punishment for committing dowry death shall be punished with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than seven years but which may extends to imprisonment for life. Special Marriage Act, 1954 states that the parties interested in registered marriage must notify the marriage officer at least one month before the date of marriage.
The act insists on the presence of two witnesses at the time of marriage. Another law which was passed on 18 may 1955. The act brought revolutionary changes in the marital relations and many social aspects. The act is applicable to the whole of India, except Jammu & Kashmir. The word “Hindu” includes Jain, Sikhs, Buddhists and the scheduled castes. Dowry prohibition acts, 1961, Criminal law amendment act 1989, family court act 1984 are some more laws which empower women in India.In olden days parents and family members used to select the partner for their child.
In the modern era the youth perceives marriage as a bonding of a male and female as the lifelong companion. They look for a good mate rather than sticking to the race, caste, ethnicity etc. Nowadays youth wants to perform such jobs themselves because they really feel that marriage is a lifelong thing, so the mate should be of their choice; which have changed the trends of arrange marriage to love marriage. Youth of today focus on personal and skilled proficient growth, believes are on higher education and good jobs first and then marriage bond. They want to get mentally and economically stronger before starting the bond of marriage.
Earlier the age of marriage was for girls 18 -22 and for boys 23-25 but now it has changed to 24 – 26 for girl and for boys 26 -30.Youngster have begun to prospect marriage as an institution were both the individual are equal shareholders, equal partners who have equal rights and duties, not just the meaning of marriage is changed. But they see marriage as a tedious relationship. This is giving raise to online dating (without marriage) live in relationship and even being singlehood, which is slowly becoming socially accepted.Nowadays through internet online marriages are taking place where bride is in one part of a country and the bride groom in another part of the country or even in foreign land and the priest enchant the mantras through Skype or face time. Don’t get demoralize paper precautions are taken into consideration and everything is done legally. This type of marriage actually good way as there is sometimes problem of time, money, distance.
Divorce rate in India has gradually increased and the reason for this is the selfish attitude of mates, they first give importance to their own wishes and growth; such attitude sometime end in arguments disputes with their mates. Other reasons like marriage against the wish of man or women also ends up in poor relationship between the mates and finally divorce. One of the main reasons for divorce is saas –bahu conflicts in which women are misusing the section 498-A of IPC to take revenge from her mother in law and husband which is not just. In India the court ruled that the stipulation under the Hindu marriage act for a six month hold back could be done away with if all efforts for mediation and conciliation intended to reunite the couple had failed. But if the couples are already living apart for more than one year then they can get divorce right away.
So, we conclude that injustice for women still not changed in the form of marriage. Stove burning, female fetus abortion, pressurizing for male child and the dowry system. Government has also allotted 33% of seats in public jobs for encourage women of India so that women can feel both economically and mentally stable, and they can stand on their own feet. Hence these factors affect institution of marriage.