Ceramics plastic paste. RAW MATER?AL • When the ceramics

Ceramics are products obtained by utilizing the heat energy of the appropriate
mixtures of the elements found in the form of compounds in the nature.
TRADITIONAL CERAMICS
Ceramics are used in many places today. In this section we will examine the
traditional ceramics and production processes. In the beginning, the material
must be in the form of plastic paste.
RAW MATER?AL
• When the ceramics are processed, mechanical energy applications
such as impact compression are used to reduce the particle size.
• Two general grinding operations are categorized:Crushing and grinding
• In this part, it may not be enough to reduce the size of the material
once. After a few steps, the desired amount of reduction can be
obtained. We can call it primary crushing, secondary crushing.
• Reduction ratio is between 3 and 6.
• After crushing, grinding of small pieces is called grinding.
• Grinding is the process of pulverizing small pieces after crushing
• It is a phenomenon that wears out in harsh environments with free
movement or comes to the end of the collapse.
• It is made up of three basic components: clay, silica and feldspar.
• Kilin’s main raw hides juicy aluminum silicates (Al2O3,SiO2,H2O), which
in small amounts contain TiO2,Fe2O3,MgO,CaO,Na2O.
• The clay in the traditional ceramics, before it hardened provides
workability and is the main component of the material.
• Silika, also called flint or quartz (SiO2), has a high melting temperature
and provides resistance to conventional ceramics.
SHAPING PROCESSES
Power and water ratio determine the shaping methods
1. Slip casting is a mixture of clay and water. (It contains 25% -40%
water.)
2. If the plastic contains 15% -25% water in the clay, it is the plastic
shaping methods.
3. Semi dry press has low softness and moist clay (10% -15% water).
4. In dry pressing, the clay is basically dry and not soft (it contains less
than 5% water).
SLIP CASTING
Suspension of ceramic powders in water is poured into a liquid die,
called a slip. The water coming from the mixture is absorbed into the
liquid to form a hard solid layer on the mold surface. The slip
composition is 25% to 40% water
v? DRAIN CASTING
v? SOLID CASTING
PLASTIC FORMING
Plastic Forming Initially the mixture is usually a plastic that contains 15% –
25% water. It can be done manually or mechanically. In order to have a soft
consistency in manual construction, more water is used. Manual shaping
methods have a long history and are still used today.
Manuel method (hand modeling)
Mechanized method (jiggering, plastic pressing, extrusion)
Ø? Hand modeling clay is brought to desired shape and ceramic product
production takes place. It is applied by hand molding or by throwing it
into the wheel of the potter.
1. Jiggering briefly, plastic pressing can be called as a method. Plates
can be used to produce identical products such as glass bowls.
Ø? Plastic pressing is the method of shaping the plastic is applied between
the upper and lower layers in the molds. The clay is removed from the
pores when the vacuum is drawn. Subsequently, the mold sections are
opened with a positive air pressure to prevent the part from sticking.
This method provides faster production than jiggering.
Ø? Extrusion compression of clay is called extrusion in order to produce
long sections with uniform cross-section. Products are hollow bricks,
shaped tiles, drain pipes, pipes.
WATER
Water is a material with important factor when traditional ceramics are formed.
The water, which varies according to its quantity, must be removed before the
fire. because it adds a certain volume to the piece, if it can not be removed,
the volume of the piece becomes smaller than the desired size.
DRYING
The drying process has two stages.
First stage is drying is rapid. The water is evaporated into the air in the
surface and the water in the interior is transported to the surface by capillary
action. At the same time, there is a risk of cracking due to the change in the
volume.
The second part of the content is reduced to the area contacted by the
ceramic beads and the volume difference shrinks. Drying heat treatment is
required to sinter the ceramic materials. At this stage the water should not be
removed very quickly.

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