Love According to Coleridge and Shelley the Term Paper

Love According to Coleridge and Shelley

The Rime of the Ancient Mariner

In Samuel Taylor Coleridge’s poem “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner,” Coleridge uses the tale of an old sailor to reveal what love is all about. In this story, The Mariner and his crew travel around the world and then head back to England.

Coleridge begins the story as an old sailor approaches three young men headed for a wedding celebration and talks one of them into listening to his story. The young man resists this interruption at first but is soon intrigued by the tale.

The old man tells him of his adventures on a ship with his crew. When the crew was sailing, a strong force pulled them in the direction of the South Pole, a “land of ice, and of fearful sounds, where no living thing was to be seen,” and the crew was helpless and afraid. When the crew saw an albatross, a large seabird, they were relieved, believing it to be a sign from God.

The albatross followed the ship as it went northbound again. However, the old Mariner grew tired of the bird’s constant presence and shot it with his crossbow, bringing a curse to the ship.

Coleridge reveals that the Albatross loved the Mariner who shot him yet stresses that the Mariner could not love him back.

The old sailor’s curse eventually kills all of his shipmates yet he alone is spared. The Mariner saw two figures — a Woman, Life-in-Death; and her companion, Death himself. The two were casting dice to see which of them would take control of the ship. Death won the entire ship’s crew except for the Ancient Mariner, who was won by the Woman. His fate would be to live with his sin against nature after he watched his shipmates drop dead.

He was left on the ship in a state of despair and loneliness, yet still had a strong disregard for non-human life. However, one night, he stood staring at the moonlit water, as snakes swam nearby.

He was startled at their beauty, and felt a rush of love for these creatures, blessing them as the only other living things in his isolated world. Coleridge is showing his readers what he interprets love to be about.

A happy living things!,” he cried. At that moment, the spell was broken. The Ancient Mariner was able to pray, and the albatross fell from his neck and sank “like lead into the sea.” He fell into a deep sleep and was rejuvenated when he woke. He now understood love.

Coleridge uses symbolism to lend and exotic and supernatural feel to this otherwise simple work. The poem’s ship is symbolic of the body of man. Just as man experiences everyday setbacks and emotions, the ship must endure everyday issues, as well. The ship carries the Mariner and his crew, as the body carries the soul. Coleridge makes an important point when he stresses the fact that no matter how skillfully man steers a boat, the boat’s fate depends upon the winds and currents. Therefore, according to Coleridge, enjoying life’s greatest things, such as love, is more important than mastering a skill.

Coleridge’s albatross represents Jesus Christ. When the Mariner impulsively kills the bird, Coleridge is referring to how Christ was crucified for similar reasons. The albatross symbolizes the Mariner’s one chance at rescue from death yet the Mariner kills him.

The Mariner is caught in “Life-in-Death” because of his incident with the albatross and is stuck in this loveless state until he is finally able to look at the “slimy things” in the ocean and bless “them unaware.” Coleridge seems to be talking about the dryness of the Mariner’s spirit and how it prevents shim from loving others and himself. Coleridge uses this example to reveal his feelings about love and how they apply to nature.

Coleridge’s South Pole symbolizes Hell. The crew cannot see a wind that is pulling them toward the South Pole. It seems, instead, that an unseen force is pulling them in that direction. Coleridge is showing how the world’s temptations lure one to Hell.

Coleridge showed a lack of love and compassion when he shot the albatross, and his actions were leading him to Hell. However, just as they get close, the spirit of the albatross, leads them back to safety. The albatross still love the Mariner even after it was shot by him.

England symbolizes Heaven in the story. When the Mariner first sees his country, a great sense of hope and joy overcome him. At the point when the Mariner is about to enter Heaven, the body, symbolized by the ship, must die. For this reason, the ship sinks. When the Pilot and his boy see the ship sinking, they go to retrieve the Mariner, just as angels retrieve a newly departed soul and carry it to Heaven.

The Mariner tells the young wedding guest that he has been obliged to travel from land to land, unaware of when the agony of his memories might return. However, he says, whenever he feels the curse darken his soul, he sees the face of a man with whom he must share his message of love and reverence for God’s creation:

He prayeth well, who loveth well

Both man and bird and beast.

He prayeth best, who loveth best

All things both great and small;

For the dear God who loveth us,

He made and loveth all.

The wedding guest is moved by this tale that when the old man leaves, he also departs, “a sadder and a wiser man.”

Frankenstein

Mary Shelley’s “Frankenstein” is largely about human nature, as she explores the human tendency to lust for power and how we deal with power when it is attained. Shelley appears to be saying that lust is often more highly regarded than love. In her story, Dr. Frankenstein played God, giving life to an inanimate body.

When he achieves this power, he retains his role of God by judging his creation. Instead of seeing the good monster, the doctor, as well as others around him, mistreat him and judge him based on his monstrous appearance. As a result, the monster reacts just as a typical human would.

A human child who is shunned and denied any human interaction cannot be blamed for negative actions. Most psychologists agree that neglect is one of the worst forms of abuse. A lack of love is what drove Frankenstein to practice destructive behavior. Shelley shows, through the monster, that love can cure the most reckless beings.

Shelley’s ideas of love are revealed through Frankenstein’s tale. Shelley asserts that a parents’ love alone is not enough for a child’s healthy development.

According to Shelley, love must be coupled with discipline and guidance. Without human interaction and guidance, Frankenstein was unable to develop into a healthy creature.

Shelley also shows how appearances affect the way we love. When Frankenstein was born, the monster had a strong capability for love yet no one gave him a chance because they were repulsed by his appearance.

Dr. Frankenstein’s intense desire to succeed in doing what is considered impossible takes precedence over love, as his actions are ruled solely by his own selfish goals. This attitude ends up destroying him and those closest to him.

The doctor, according to Shelley, is unable to appreciate the beauty of life or his ability to create his own children and to share the love of a family. He rejects natural creation in favor of scientifically creating a live creature.

Although he is successful in bringing Frankenstein to life, one of the doctor’s biggest flaws in his attempt to create a living being, is that he fails to nurture it as a parent would for his own child. In…

Leadership Behavioral Approach “Leadership Is the Lifting Essay

Leadership Behavioral Approach

“Leadership is the lifting of people’s vision to a higher sight, the raising of their performance to a higher standard, and the building of their personality beyond its normal limitations” (Drucker, 1985). Ability to inspire others in a shared vision is one of the quality features of a leader. Leaders have cleared visions and communicate these visions to their subordinates to enhance corporate values.

The objective of this essay is to review the leadership behaviors and approaches common to the organisation.

The paper compares alternative leadership theories, and assesses the validity and utility of these theories with reference to the behaviors of leaders at Apple Computers.

Finally, the study develops a hypothesis and tests this hypothesis by critically analyzing the critical incident to judge leadership performance.

Leadership behaviours and approaches

Leadership behavior and approach are the combine styles that the leaders use to influence the subordinates to reach organizational objectives. The leadership approach focuses exclusively on the way the leaders act or behave. In a contemporary business environment, leadership style and approach are the essential tools that shape organizational goals. In every organization, different leadership approaches are needed based on different situations and leaders in every organization exhibits different approach to shape an organization.

Wang, Tsui, & Xin (2011) identify two types of leadership approaches as:

Transformational leadership approach

Transactional leadership approach

Transformational leadership style and approach is the articulate vision, sense of mission and determination that the leaders use to communicate to the subordinates. A transformational leader fosters an environment to encourage risk taking, empowerment, and recognition to allow other leaders to emerge. (Clark, 2009). Transformational leaders facilitate multiple level of transformation by maximizing human and organizational capabilities. Transformational leaders use their visionary skills to enhance corporate governance. They also use their knowledge to structure and process the business affairs of their companies to enhance long-term shareholders values. (Teen, 2006). To respond to a dynamic environment, transformational leaders use charismatic style to make change happen in others, group, and organizations and obtain high performances expectation from the followers.

In contrast to the transformational leadership approach, transactional leadership motivates the followers through rewards or punishment. Transactional leaders use task-oriented approach to achieve goals. To pursue an organizational goal, transactional leaders monitor and influence organizational operations. Typically, the transactional leadership emphasizes on getting things done using the umbrella of status quo.

On the other hand, Northouse (2007) argues that to achieve corporate governance, leaders should demonstrate two types of leadership approaches:

Style leadership approach

Situational leadership approach

Style leadership approach explains how the leaders combine tasks and relationship behaviors to influence subordinates with the aim to reach organizational goals. Task and relationship behaviors are the core of the leadership process. Leaders using style approach believe that some situations are more task oriented while some situations are relationship-based orientated. Style leadership approach uses task behavior to facilitate goals and relationship behaviour to assist subordinates to be comfortable in their work environment. However, it is very difficult to find a leader that could be effective in both situations at the same time.

Situation leadership approach exhibits the prescribe leadership style based on the situation. The leaders recognize employees need and adapt their own styles to meet the needs of the subordinates. Situation leaders accurately diagnose the situation and direct the group members to accomplish their goals. More than 400 of the 500 Fortune companies use situational leadership approach to achieve their objectives. Despite the importance of situational approach, few studies have completed research on this approach.

Different theories explain the validity and utility of leadership within an organizational context. The leadership theories are discussed in the next section.

Leadership Theories and their Validity and Utility within an Organizational Context

Different theories explain the leadership behavior within an organizational context. Positive reinforcement theory discusses how the leaders use the positive reinforcement to shape the behaviour of their followers. The use of positive reinforcement to increase productivity has been successfully applied in the organizations such as Michigan Bell, Goodrich, and Energy Air Freight. Supporters of positive reinforcement theory argue that organizations have been able to use reinforcement theory to lower costs and increase productivities. (Lussier & Achua 2010).

In contrast to reinforcement theory, management theory focuses on the method leaders uses the management technique to shape an organization. Management theory explains that employees are rewarded or punished in a business organization based on the employee performances. For example, workers are rewarded if performed excellently or punished if they fail. Management theory is similar to the transactional theory that explains how the transactional leaders shape followers commitment by offering reward or punishment.

In a contemporary business environment, many organizations apply management theory to achieve organizational objectives. Leaders use task-oriented behavioural technique to promote greater task productivities. (Mumford, Campion, & Morgeson 2007).

Similar to reinforcement and management theories, DeRue et al. (nd) use the behavioural theory to discuss the trait and behavior of the leaders. The authors argue that the leaders demonstrate skills and personality traits to achieve corporate objectives. For example, the transactional leadership demonstrates task-oriented behaviors while transformational leadership focus on relational-oriented leadership behaviors. Task-oriented behavior involves using contingent reward or punishment to shape the behaviours of employees. To shape the behavior of employee, behavioural theory explains that the leader defines the task role and roles relationships among group members to determine the standards of tasks performances. Bahavioral theory explains that transactional leaders demonstrate the task oriented traits by explaining the standards required from the employees. Contrarily, leaders demonstrate relational-oriented behaviors by showing concern and respect for individual group members. By treating group members as equal, the leaders are able to attain the organizational goals. Transformational, democratic, and participative leaders are the examples of leaders who build respect and focus on the welfare of the followers. These leaders use relational-oriented behaviors to facilitate changes within the organizational settings. (Srivastava, Bartol, & Locke, 2006).

Similar to relational-oriented behavior, change-oriented behaviour also facilitate changes with an organization by encouraging innovation and risk taking. For example, transformational leaders stimulate intellectual changes and communicate a vision for change. (Yukl, Gordon, & Taber 2002). Essentially, the leadership style approach is very important for the organizational success. Without leadership style and approach to guide the subordinates, an organization may not achieve the desired corporate goals. This issue is very applicable to Apple computers.

Apple Computers was launched in 1976, and the company recorded tremendous growth until 1980s. Apple recorded success in 1980s because Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs articulated leadership styles that enhanced employee positive attitude. Steve applied behavioural theory to revitalize the company. The relational-oriented leadership style that Steve applied made Apple to record tremendous growth. For example, Apple launched Apple II in the 1980s. However, after 1980s, Apple experienced declines in performances because Steve Wozniak suffered injury, which made the company to employ new CEO. The new CEO did not possess the leadership styles and approach to guide his subordinates.

“Internal tension followed which resulted in Steve Jobs also leaving his company in the late 1980’s. The new CEO was ousted in 1993 but further leadership changes and internal uncertainty followed – resulting in a lack of company focus up until 1997.” (Kennedy, 2004, P 1).

Wang, et al. (2011) argues that CEO charisma is very critical for organizational performances. A leader should be able to use his charisma to manage an organization during the crisis. The case of Apple Computers was different, the new CEO lacked leadership quality to direct his subordinates and manage the company during the crisis. Thus, Apple suffered decline in growth until 1997.

Hypothesis 1: Leadership behavior relates positively to organizational performance and employees’ positive attitudes.

To test out the hypothesis, the paper analyses a critical incident.

Application of analysis to a critical incident

Analysis of leadership theories has shown that leaders need to demonstrate relational or task oriented behaviors to achieve organizational performances. To positively increase productivities and job satisfactions within the organizational contexts, leaders need to implement task-oriented or relational-oriented approach to enhance organizational changes. A critical incident that reveals how a leader employs leadership styles to make changes within an organization is the case of Apple Computers. Following the decline in growth of Apple after the nomination of a new CEO, Steve Jobs returned to Apple to revitalize the company. Steve applied the behavioral changes leadership style to initiate positive attitudes from employees. Moreover, Steve applied relational leadership style to divert employees back to the positive track. With the positive attitude of employees to achieve organizational performances, Steve re-focused company strategy by launching new brands called G4 chip and iMac — which fitted with Apple’s original brand. Apple recorded first profits after launching the new brands, and since then Apple’s profits continue to rise. Couple of years after Steve resumes his post; Steve has been able to maximize shareholders values by demonstrating steep increase in the company share prices. (See Fig 1).

Fig 1: Apple Share price from 2002 to 2005.

DeRue et al. (nd) argues that leaders…

HR and Technology Term Paper

Human Services Evaluation

Human Services are essential for any organization to deal with critical challenges and evolve with the unique issues they are facing. Those organizations which have effective policies and procedures to deal with employee issues will be able to attract and retain the best talent. Human Services plays a critical part in understand what is happening and addressing these disparities. To fully understand how these challenges are dealt with requires focusing on: the practice setting, the main objectives of the program, selecting a research design, studying the sample, ethical considerations, how it will be measured, the validity of the threat, the use of the data from the evaluation and what was learned. Together, these different elements will illustrate the best way to design a program that responsive to the needs of stakeholders in the longer term.

Describe the practice setting where the proposed evaluation will take place. Include a discussion of the population served and program(s) provided

The practice setting is concentrating on a large corporation with 200 employees. They are providing technology related services to the private sector, non-profits and various levels of government. In general, most employees have specific skills that help to troubleshoot critical challenges with storing and retrieving large amounts of data on the company’s cloud network. However, there are clear divisions between management and the staff. In this case, the management will dictate to employees’ specific tasks and the way they want them to be achieved.

The population that will be served is the 200 employees. This is because there is an authoritarian style utilized to run the company. The different services that will be provided include: mediating disputes between management / staff members, employee benefits, performance evaluations and adjusting these programs for their different needs. The combination of these factors will have an impact on company’s ability to prevent defections to other firms and retain key talent in the process.

Identify and analyze the main objectives of the program. Evaluate if these objectives are good. If they are, describe what makes them good. If they are not “good,” identify what could be done to make them good.

The main objectives of the program are: to focus on meeting the needs of employees, help managers to understand how certain practices are creating disputes, effectively troubleshoot / mediate any disagreement between executives / staff members, training / hiring new people and adjusting to the continuing needs of employees. These areas are effective, as they offer a general approach for addressing issues impacting personnel. This is helps the company to address critical disputes and become more responsive to the needs of stakeholders.

To improve upon them a new approach must be taken. This requires conducting annual surveys among employees and managers about how to enhance the services provided. During this process, they can identify critical areas and help the firm to avoid key challenges. At which point, specific programs and recommendations will be introduced to maintain a strong work environment inside the organization.

Select a research design that would be helpful to evaluate the effectiveness of this program. Explain why you chose that specific design.

A research design that would be effective in understanding the program is to utilize the mixed method approach. This is when other programs and services will be evaluated by objectively looking at different ideas on human resource management. These insights will provide a basic foundation of key trends and practices to adjust with changes inside the workplace. (Nagy, 2010)

A sample will be collected through evaluating the views of employees and managers in an annual survey. These insights can be compared with the information that was uncovered earlier to determine critical challenges and create solutions for addressing them. The mixed methodology was selected, as it will help to maintain objectivity and understand which techniques are effective for competing firms. (Nagy, 2010)

How will you determine the study sample for your research design?

The study sample will be determined by dividing employees and managers into two separate groups. In this case, the differences between them will help to determine where critical challenges exist and how this impacts morale. Once this happens, is the point specific procedures will be utilized to deal with these issues before they become more pronounced. (Nagy, 2010)

Discuss any ethical considerations with regard to the participants, such as how you will keep the information confidential, protect the client, etc.

The information will be kept confidential by only asking if the person is an employee / manager, their age, department and how long they have been with the firm. These areas will enable them to provide more honest answers about what is happening and the lasting impacts it is having on them. Any responses will kept under strict lock and key inside Human Services files. The only people who will have access to them are those within the department and the board of directors. The basic idea is to protect the integrity of the process through ensuring that there is no retribution directed at anyone offering honest assessments about the work environment.

Explain how you will measure client progress. Do online research to determine one or two measurement scales that would be helpful for your research design.

The client’s response will be measured by focusing on two different scales. These include: nominal and ordinal approaches. The nominal approach is looking at various pieces of data by placing them into specific categories. The main idea is to understand which variables will have the greatest impact on stakeholders and respond to the most critical issues. This will ensure that the department is able to deal with key challenges early. (“Measurement Scales,” 2013)

The ordinal approach will rank the different responses in categories of importance using a scale from 1 to 5. During this process, there will be an emphasis on establishing the mean and order of correlation. These factors will have an influence on the process by illustrating which issues need to be addressed by the department in contrast with other areas. The combination of these techniques will enable personnel to effectively determine the most critical challenges that could negative influence the working environment. (“Measurement Scales,” 2013)

Determine any threats to validity related to your research design.

The biggest threat to the validity of the research is losing objectivity. This can occur with personnel from within the department sharing their insights among supervisors or employees early. These areas are challenging, as they will make it difficult to introduce long-term changes that will have a positive impact on stakeholders. (Drapeau, 2002)

A good example of this can be seen with insights from Drapeau (2002) who said, “Subjectivity in research is a topic that has led more than once too much discussion and to many debates. For quantitative researchers, it is -and rightfully so- a variable needing to be controlled. In mixed method studies, the answer does not appear to be as simple. Some suggest maintaining subjectivity at a near zero level by sticking to the text which is analyzed. Thus, establishing a clear connection between qualitative and quantitative research through a search for objectivity and a near-positivist perspective is critical. On the other hand, many researchers suggest making use of subjectivity and drawing on one’s inner experience in order to better understand the subject of a study. For them, distancing themselves from the subject through the use of standardized or semi-standardized methods only keeps the subject at a distance. Unfortunately, such attempts also present certain risks such as projection on behalf of the researcher, limitations due to the researcher’s own blind spots, and a sometimes unclear demarcation between what belongs to subjectivity and what belongs to delusions.” (Drapeau, 2002)

These insights are showing how subjectivity could have a negative impact on personnel. The key is to have procedures in place that prevent any information from being released to unauthorized individuals and enable everyone to maintain a sense of neutrality throughout the entire process. Once this takes place, is when it will be more effective in understanding and addressing key challenges.

Discuss how you would use data from the evaluation to inform your practice.

The data from the evaluation will be used to comprehend what issues need to be dealt with right away and establish procedures for preventing them in the future. This will enable Human Services to serve as a go between in preventing the work environment from having a toxic atmosphere. At the same time, the suggestions on how to improve the benefits provided to employees will enable the firm to maintain its competitive edge. This is because competitors will try to lure talent away from the organization by providing them with more. The problem is that these issues will become more pronounced through failing to understand what they have to offer and matching them. If this kind of approach is used, the firm will be responsive to the needs of stakeholders and ensure that the best employees continue to work for the organization over the long-term.

Conclusion – Discuss…

How the October Revolution Affected Russia Essay

Revolution

While the February Revolution ended the reign of the Tsar, the October Revolution solidified the hold and influence of the Bolsheviks. Lenin appealed to popular notions in order to garner support, though what followed the Bolshevik seizure of power was only more civil war between the Reds and the Whites. The October Revolution nonetheless ended Tsarist Russia, as it had been known, by setting the course definitively towards a socialist state, in which violence and totalitarianism were key dictates, and the old technique of divide and conquer was used to quell the opposition that was itself full of disunity. Autocratic Russia could not have continued in tsarist form as there were too many forces at work in Russia at the end of the 19th century and early 20th century. The Bolsheviks were too well funded to fail and the will of the tsar was out of favor with the liberal ideology that had spread throughout Russia and convinced the people that a new form of government would lead to better times (Rabinowitch 81).

In 1917 Russia suffered two revolutions, which resulted in a drastic change of leadership. Tsarist Russia became Lenin’s Soviet Russia and the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was signed shortly thereafter in March 1918, which was “overshadowed” by the front line units working out their own “negotiations” with the Germans (Wildman 78). Essentially, Russia was cutting ties with its past and the February Revolution had only done half the job. It still remained for Russia to organize. Lenin and the Bolsheviks wanted to strike while the iron was hot and this is what they did: while Lenin worried that the Soviets might lose steam by losing Petrograd “to the Germans,” the call to arms was given “an immediate armed uprising” was set in motion (Rabinowitch 85).

Meanwhile, the October Revolution paved the way for a political truce that would end the war — which is what everyone wanted. Russia had to relinquish some of its territory and a third of Russia’s population. Russia was already suffering from “fundamental political, economic and social” problems at this time — and the loss of land and people only helped to fuel the coming civil war (Rabinowtich 81). It lost railroads, factories, the majority of its coal and iron. Russia gained some peace from the treaty, and could now focus on its internal problems resulting from the recent overthrow and the war effort. Leading up to the Revolution, Imperial Russia had suffered devastating casualties and food shortages. The Bolsheviks called for an end to the war on the Eastern Front, and Germany supported this call, allowing Lenin to return to Russia from his exile in Switzerland. A Soviet force called the Red Guards — a paramilitary outfit opposed to Russia’s provisional government that had formed in the wake of the Tsar’s removal –…

George Caleb Bingham Raftsmen Playing Cards Term Paper

artwork “Raftsmen Playing Cards” by George Caleb Bingham. Specifically, it will discuss the historical context and aesthetic effect of the piece, and answer the question, what makes this work cool? The work is an amusing and very American painting created in 1847. It is oil on canvas, 3’11” by 5’91/2,” and it resides at the Saint Louis Art Museum in Missouri. This oil is wonderful in its vivid color and detail, but there is something more compelling about it, and that is that the work is so obviously and uniquely American. These rough-hewn men playing cards could not exist anywhere but on an American river, and that is quite clear from the moment anyone first views this work. The painting is comprised of a large, flat raft of the type polled along the Mississippi River in the mid-nineteenth century. It is the glue in the painting that holds the characters together, and the characters in this painting are the main focus. Dressed in bright colors, the men playing cards, and those watching, are the central point of this painting. The men, in various forms of work and rest, converge around two of their friends who are playing cards. Each man on the raft has a distinct and quite discernable personality, it is clear the painter was hoping to create more than a painting here, he was attempting to incorporate real and vivid caricatures of American characters on his raft floating down a heavily wooded river. Only one man works, and he has his back to the camera as he steadily poles the raft up the river. The others all surround the two men playing cards, watching their action, and perhaps scheming how to swindle the winner out of his newfound winnings. Each subject is distinct, with unique features, clothing, and attitude, which make each man a real character in his own right. Lighting helps keep the main subject in focus, while the riverbank and river off in the distance seem a bit hazy and foggy. It is clear the painter wanted the focus to center on the action on the raft, and the background is simply there for setting and mood. Dressed in rough shirts and pants, and some without shoes, these men are clearly coarse characters who enjoy each other’s company, but perhaps, as the two men glancing over the shoulders of the players indicate, are not quite to be trusted. There is something a bit scheming about them, even in this benign setting.

This art is clearly American Realism at its best. The minute detail of the figures and the raft, the attention to the riverbank and the misty mountains in the distance, Bingham executes all these details with deftness and a real concern for realism. He has even spent the time to recreate distinct personalities for his river men, which are quite apparent with a close viewing of the painting. There is a dreamlike quality to the surroundings, but the main subjects stand out in stark relief. It is clear they are the main focus of this painting, but they also reveal Bingham’s realistic style that followed him throughout his lifetime. At a time when there were no commonly available photographs, Bingham captured scenes as if they were shot with a camera, so that people all over the world could see what life was like on the American frontier. His style is consistent with other realists of the time, who strove to capture scenes as they really were, and depict people as they really looked. This was a time when Americans wanted to see realism in their artworks, and yet, they wanted them to depict happy and simple scenes of American life. As the textbook notes, “The demand was for pictures that preserved the myth of simple, happy, rustic life, rendered with close attention to circumstantial detail and without any hint of social tension” (Honour & Fleming 689). Bingham’s works fit this bill perfectly, and he is one of the finest examples of a self-taught painter who mastered the art of realism that America has produced. His work is also an excellent example of what American Realist painters were doing at this time. Painters like Daniel Huntington, Robert W. Weir, and John G. Chapman also painted in this genre during Bingham’s time, and their commonality is their love for the West, and their ability to capture the excitement and character of the West for their art patrons back East, who wanted realistic paintings depicting their romanticized idea of the American frontier. Other paintings of this era captured real-life heroes like Daniel Boone, and political figures of the day – in keeping with the realistic and often romantic view of the American frontier.

There are many, many items in this painting that all come together to make it quite cool. First and foremost, it is distinctly American, something that could not be said even one hundred years before, when European art still dominated the style and character of most artwork. Bingham’s work not only captures the realism of the American frontier, it captures the soul of Americans. Nowhere else could this painting could have taken place. The men, the landscape, and the raft itself all shout “American,” and that is one of the things that makes this piece so cool, it is ours, and ours alone. Bingham and painters like him created a new and distinctive style that became noted around the world, and this painting, with all its’ realistic touches, shows just why. Most important are the men themselves, who have such unique personalities. The man on the right, who has just thrown down his card, looks like someone you would not want to cross, and neither does his partner. However, the man in the red shirt looks a little perplexed or even simple, and the viewer has to worry that the other player will rout him, leaving him with little but his bright red shirt and blue pants. The two men watching the action seem to be waiting for their turn, but the man in the dark hat looks especially eager to see what the man on the right is playing. He does not seem like he is altogether to be trusted, either. The man in the rear seems less interested than bored, and his clothing seems to indicate he may be the owner or boss on the boat. There is another man unconcerned with the play, who seems to have an injury of some kind, but the others ignore him, so it must not be major. All of this detail comes from Bingham’s ability to paint a scene with realism and detail, and that is pretty cool.

It is clear Bingham can handle landscape work, and one important aspect of this work is the landscape surrounding the men as they travel along the river. However, Bingham could have removed the landscape, and it would still be a striking piece of art. Remove the raft and the men, however, and the painting would lose its punch, and its coolness. The men and their reactions to each other are what give this painting its life, and without them, it could be a landscape anywhere, at any time. The men are what make this painting American, and they are central to the core of the Realism movement. A landscape can certainly be real and emotional, but add these very important men, and the painting takes on a new depth, and a new feeling. It is quite clear that Bingham understood his subjects implicitly, and that he understood exactly what he trying to impart on the canvas. This is another item in the list of things that make this painting cool. Bingham knew what he was doing, that is clear, but like a great writer or poet,…

California Pizza Kitchen Is a Gourmet Pizza Essay

California Pizza Kitchen is a gourmet pizza restaurant that provides unique pizza styles, as well as other entree options, to their customers. The client base primarily orders pizzas, which California Pizza Kitchen gladly caters to (CPK.com, 2011).

California Pizza Kitchen marketing strategies emphasize quality unique pizzas while providing upscale yet casual customer service. The restaurant was founded in 1985 by then-attorney’s Rick Rosenfield and Larry Flax, who introduced flavors from around the world (CPK.com, 2011). The products of California Pizza Kitchen are now consumer brands, and the customer base is quite loyal. The company has grown to serve customers at 265 restaurants in 32 states and ten foreign countries (CPK.com, 2011).

The California Pizza Kitchen market has reported a profit margin of 17% in the last twelve months, and aims to raise this number to its five-year average of 19% (Forbes, 2011). With the unique style, advanced customer service, and accessible product line, California Pizza Kitchen will be able to meet this goal.

2.0 Introduction

In this paper, an overall analysis will be completed on the California Pizza Kitchen, a company classified by the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) as a Sector 72-Accomodation and Food Services business (NAICS, 2011). After discussing Porter’s Five Forces and conducting a PEST analysis in reference to California Pizza Kitchen, a reader may understand the company’s strength within its industry.

3.0 Porter’s Five Forces

Porter’s Five Forces is a model that displays how a business is influenced within its own industry. When a business desires to gain an advantage over their competition, they may use Porter’s Five Forces — Rivalry, threat of substitutes, supplier power, barriers to entry, and buyer power — as a way to analyze how to gain a competitive advantage (QuickMBA.com, 2010).

Rivalry is initiated when more than one business exists within an industry that can provide the same or similar products to consumers. Any business attempting to survive will try to gain competitive advantage above their rivals. The degree of rivalry that California Pizza Kitchen has within the restaurant industry is constantly raising and lowering (QuickMBA.com, 2010). In times of good economic growth, California Pizza Kitchen may lose business to new sit down restaurants or carry out pizza companies. California Pizza Kitchen has created some competitive advantage by having specialty pizzas and by being one of only a few gourmet pizza restaurants.

Unfortunately for California Pizza Kitchen, if a consumer wants pizza, many may settle for California Pizza Kitchen competition for pricing purposes. Customers may find that they receive equal satisfaction with cheaper products from local stores or cheaper restaurants (QuickMBA.com, 2010). To counteract this risk, California Pizza Kitchen joined forces with Nestle and produced pizzas that were accessible at grocery stores (CPK.com, 2011). Because California Pizza Kitchen caters to such a specific market, they also have a high risk of losing customers to other non-pizza gourmet sit down restaurants.

In an industry where a supplier is provided with power, a company is able to set the price for their product. Because the amount of suppliers to customers is so high for the pizza industry, California Pizza Kitchen is not able to have a strong declaration in how high they wish to set their prices. The supplier power is weak, and customers have limitless options as to where they may obtain their pizza (QuickMBA.com, 2010).

Rivals pose a threat to all others in an industry. To keep the number of rivals at a minimum, companies compete by having barriers to entry into their industry. To do so, most companies keep a relatively low mark up of their products. This way, their business is sustainable and when in poor economic times, may prove to be stronger than those exiting the economy. California Pizza Kitchen is known for a particular product and demonstrates relatively competitive pricing, but because of capabilities to enter the food industry are quite easy, the barriers of entry are quite low (QuickMBA.com, 2010).

A buyer is provided with power when the number of suppliers is greater than the number of buyers, known as monopsony. Though monopsony only exists in a small amount of cases, the principles of the concept are prominent in businesses with a low consumer rate. The buyer power helps keep industry prices…

Paternal Abandonment and Female Adult Term Paper

e. fat storage. These physiological concerns are significant in that programming that was designed to maintain a nurturing position for young children the physiological environment interprets crisis as anything that creates a stressful physical demeanor. The stress and psychology of abandonment is a constant, once the abandonment by the father has occurred. The body does not distinguish between a fasting period associated with unavailable food, or drought and psychological long-term emotional stress. The human body also does not distinguish between a self imposed diet and a period of famine. It reduces its basal metabolic rate, or the rate of metabolism needed to perform its base functions, and then the recovery period would seem to be longer than expected. This is the diet conundrum, though it has also been proven that prolonged periods of psychological stress and/or depression that could be associated with abandonment by the father will also cause a similar basal metabolic rate reduction.

The human body can adapt to a period of caloric restriction by lowering its basal metabolic rate, so as to conserve energy, glucose, and protein. There is mounting evidence that when the restriction is relaxed or lifted metabolic rate may remain below normal, for at least a few months and perhaps longer (Keys et al. 1950; Kirkley and Burge 1989). Thus, when an individual reaches desired low weight and increases caloric intake, her body may store the added calories as fat, rather than using them. Prolonged semistarvation, whether self-inflicted or involuntary, produces a host of symptoms (e.g., irritability, lability of mood, fatigue, and an obsession with food). (Stephens, Hill & Hanson, 1994, p. 137)

In at least one study there was a clear correlation made between work stress and incidence of obesity, at least a limited indicator that prolonged stress can create a situation ripe for the development of obesity. (Hellerstedt, and Jeffrey, 1997, pp. 575-583) the issue of prolonged stress due to abandonment can be excessive and complex and it is safe to say there are many unknowns with regard to how children perceive and deal with such stress, both psychologically and physiologically.

Abandoned children may also experience economic duress, vicariously through the single parent. The absence of the remaining parent is also a common stressor (as well as the missing parent) as absence is required to maintain the economic needs of a family, with only one physical provider. As one researcher puts it, “single parenting and paternal abandonment are major causes of poverty, especially childhood poverty” (Patterson, 2002, p. 26)They may also feel and adapt to the emotional stress felt by the remaining parent to provide for children as well as to provide adequate physical and emotional care for them. The factors are extremely multifaceted, and don’t even touch on the core feelings of rejection, often resulting in misplaced anger that will intensify the stress associated with the situation. Children as young as five have been shown to experience symptoms of clinical depression resulting from their perception of the world as a rejecting and neglectful environment. Once again, such issues are largely unknowns, as childhood stress adaptation and depression are not completely understood. What is known is that there is a clear connection between depression and overweight/obesity and many of the patterns that produce them are retained by children into adulthood, resulting in adult depression and sometimes other health related issues, such as overweight/obesity both which come with a slew of psychical and psychological risks. (Bifulco, 1998) in one study discussing the efficacy of family based therapies for the treatment of childhood obesity, there is a clear indication that such therapy and others may be effective but require the involvement and support of the whole family, including the father. (Epstein et al., 1990) Other issues that are associated with the abandoned girl have to do with the gendered manner in which young girls receive and accept messages, regarding body image and self-worth. It is accepted by some that female children (especially in adolescence) are more receptive to messages regarding body image, either negative or positive from their fathers. (Vincent & McCabe, 1999) if such an influence is absent, then the issue may become an unknown for the young girl, and hence she must then rely exclusively on the frequently unobtainable ideals of the ultra-thin body. (Mccabe & Ricciardelli, 2001, p. 225) Coupling this information with the patterns of girls being more likely to utilize dieting as a weight loss strategy (Mccabe & Ricciardelli, 2001, p. 225) and the fact that periods of semi-starvation are not effective for long-term weight loss the girl may then develop a pattern of unhealthy behavior associated with eating that will carry them into adulthood, and could develop into a situation of obesity.

Hypothesis:

Girls who were abandoned are more likely to become obese adults than girls who maintained a close relationship with their fathers throughout childhood. This work will attempt to answer the research Question; Is there a correlation between obese adult females and childhood abandonment by their fathers?

Review of Literature:

The evolution of the obesity epidemic is difficult to trace, as there is are many mitigating factors. The overall impression is that overweight and obesity are much more common that ever before, and largely in developed nations. The concerns of the medical community, as well as many others, economically and socially driven, are conglomerated in a maze of ideas about cause and effect of obesity. Some say that obesity is a symptom of disease, or unhealthy, rather than a disease itself, while others contend that obesity should be recognized and treated as a chronic disease, just like many others. The foundational problem then arises as to how to develop a clear sense of the problem and its many debated solutions. For a fascinating discussion of the evolution of the medical understanding of obesity and overweight see Pool 2001. (Pool, 2001, p. 37) the resulting variation in theory, as a result of early research, as well as social phenomena can be baffling to even the most ardent research professional, let alone the individual seeking to find solutions to their own problem of overweight or fear of it. Some say that diet and exercise are the only logical answers while others say that diet and exercise have caused some of the problem (specifically diet behaviors and mentalities). When attempting to create a comprehensive review of literature with regard to the nature of the obesity epidemic it becomes increasingly clear that there are many theories very few of which touch on prolonged psychological stress as a factor in obesity, and none specifically address abandonment by the father as a mitigating risk factor in female adult obesity. In fact it is clear that most discussion in the literature simply points out the increased prevalence of obesity and tells the individual, hearing the warning to seek help from their medical professional. (“Most U.S. Adults at,” 2005) the concern is then that the individual, given conflicting information relies on a medical profession that is just as confused as they are about the causes of obesity.

As has been stated previously, the idea that obesity and its increase is completely is a physiological phenomena, occurring today because there is a greater availability of high caloric foods and a lower level of physical activity has been propagated extensively by many facets of the community concerned with overweight and obesity. One writer points out that:

Some of the problems with current knowledge about overweight and obesity appear to be more willful and are the products of a determination to see the world in particular ways. For example, the overweight and obesity literature is dominated by the idea that Western society in general is more sedentary than in the past when almost no empirical evidence for this claim exists. In fact, there are many core ideas within the science of body weight and health and the mediating role played by exercise and diet which are simply assumed to be true. (Ross, 2004, p. 4)

The concerns then become even more complex, as assumptions guide intervention, even when such intervention (i.e. putting the body through semi-starvation and/or increased levels of activity that mimic historical physical stress) could actually be more harmful than good for the developing body and mind. The weight loss industry is also a major source of funding for research and development, even of the most scientific nature and is a huge and growing industry.

Indeed, by 1990, the revenues of the commercial weight loss industry totaled more than $30,000,000,000. According to Marketdata Enterprises, $8,000,000,000 was spent on diet centers and programs; group and individual weight loss; diet camps; prepackaged foods; over-the-counter and prescription drugs; weight loss books and magazines; and physicians, nurses, nutritionists, and other professionals specializing in weight loss. Commercial and residential exercise clubs with weight loss programs brought in an additional $8,000,000,000, and revenues from sugar-free, fat-free, and reduced-calorie food products, imitation fats, and sugar substitutes amounted to more…

The Role of FEMA in Disaster Management Essay

Coordination of Disaster Preparedness

Who was in command of that incident? Explain whether or not you think the right organization and individual/s were in command.

The May 4, 2013, severe flooding and tornadoes in the central United States necessitated an urgent need for food supplies, overnight shelters, and disaster support. The incident command in this scene, the American Red Cross deployed mobile feeding vehicles, opened shelters and coordinated over one thousand tornado disaster relief employees. Participants of the Red Cross Annual Disaster Giving Program helped offer the funds to rush relief to residents; however, the need for additional donations was still great because of the enormous devastation storms caused across the central U.S.. This was among the deadliest tornados ever since 1988 so I believe the Red Cross was the most suitable organization. It continued to mobilize volunteers and supplies, such as clean-up kits, into the affected areas. Red Cross caseworkers worked with individuals and families to offer extra assistance based on the damage sustained to their homes and provided care and comfort to help residents and emergency workers manage the fear and stress that accompanies all disasters.

How might federal, state, and local resources be coordinated?

Such a natural disaster is beyond the capability of local government and resources (O’Leary, 2004). In this instance, the initial recourse is to call upon the resources of neighboring jurisdictions to help in the recovery and response efforts. Most local governments have mutual aid agreements that are activated on a routine basis. When local resources and capabilities including mutual aid are exhausted, and extra resources are still needed, then state resources (technical, equipment and personnel assistance) are used to support local operations. Federal resources are requested when the local and state governments have exhausted their capabilities, and they still need supplemental federal support for recovery. To qualify for federal assistance, Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) evaluates the number of individuals displaced, homes destroyed, people without essential services and the amount of insurance coverage. They also consider the number of deaths and injuries. FEMA then uses this information to decide how the number of people in need of home loans, housing assistance, disaster unemployment assistance, grants to meet their basic needs and crisis counseling (Golnaraghi, 2012).

How might state and local agencies and officials work together to plan and respond to this disaster?

Wisconsin Emergency Management (WEM) coordinates with the local, state and other…

Intervention for Depression Among Young Mothers With Disabled Children Essay

Depression for Young Mothers With a Disabled Child

One of the most common psychiatric illnesses that have become prevalent in the recent past across the world is depression, which is the second most incapacitating condition among psychological and physical disorders. The prevalence of this disorder and its severe impacts on patients has contributed to numerous studies that have focused on different issues regarding the condition. An example of a study that has been carried out on this issue is a research on levels of depression among mothers with children with disabilities by Seyed Hadi Motamedi, Reza Seyednour, Morteza Noorikhajavi, and Susan Afghah. This study was not only carried out to examine the depression levels among mothers with disabled children but was also geared towards examine the need to support these parents and improve treatment for their children. The study found that depression levels for this population is equal to 3-5 of the worldwide range and reported the increased need to support these mothers in order to improve treatment of their children ((Motamedi et. al., 2007, p.3).

Critique

The report regarding this study is well written since the authors are concise in their discussions, have avoided using jargon, and have presented their findings in an organized manner. The report has a clear title that is relatively accurate and unambiguous while the abstract provides a clear overview of the research through inclusion of the study objectives, methodology, results, and conclusions. The phenomenon to be studied is clearly indicated since the researchers have provided background information regarding the topic before narrowing down their discussion to their area of interest in the research process.

However, the researchers did not conduct a literature review that included philosophical underpinnings of the study despite utilizing a cross-sectional or analytical research methodology. The findings of this study could have been enhanced if the authors included a literature review on the topic and incorporated an analysis of current literature on this subject. As a result, their study does not include and explain the philosophical underpinnings of the topic issue. This implies that the study on depression levels among mothers with disabled children by this group of researchers is not robust. The identification and explanation of philosophical underpinnings relating to the issue under examination are crucial factors towards enhancing the robustness of a study and help in enhancing the accuracy of research findings.

The sample size and sample…

Leadership: Being an Effective Project Term Paper

This attribute of ownership and passion makes everyone associated with the project realize that “the buck stops here” as it relates to each project. There is an element of transparency as well in having strong ownership and passion for projects that makes project managers who have this attribute easy to work with, and as a result they gain support quickly in organizations.

Fifth, leadership in project management is also evident in the strong commitment to stay current with operations research, statistical, and operations research initiatives and plans throughout their areas of expertise. Having an inherent interest in the specific areas of project management, leaders in this field often contribute their expertise and thought leadership in written articles and industry speeches sharing their lessons learned in the process.

These five essential attributes are evident in project management leaders. The catalyst of excellent project management performance is a passion for the area and a genuine interest in seeing results from efforts to applying project management techniques to accomplishing complex development programs.

Project Management Leadership Is a Catalyst for Organizational Change

In addition to the essential attributes mentioned, project managers who are effective leaders also bring needed change, either in it systems, processes, and strategies into their organizations. Leadership in this context is all about changing processes to make them more efficient both internally and in serving customers, or coordinating with suppliers. The most effective leaders in project management roles are able to bring significant change into their organizations despite any cultural or legacy process constraints. Leaders in the project management role are able to work around these constraints and still bring needed change into an organization. This takes tact and intelligence to understand how much one aspect of the company can change and by how much.

As a result, the most desirable attribute of a project manager is to interpret the culture of their organizations and build change management plans that give their projects the highest possibility of success. This is often called creating change management strategies, and the best project managers excel at this. Caudron (1999) defines change management as the ability of executives to embrace the human side of change, specifically addressing the fact that people don’t want to be changed; they want change to better their roles, responsibilities and future in a company. A project manager who is a leader is capable of providing a vision of how their contribution will benefit not only the contributor’s career opportunities, but everyone’s. Caudron (1999) also argues that executives and more specifically leaders who are project managers need to embrace the aspect of how change itself is changing; the speed and intensity of change is modifying companies, and the most effective behaviors leads can show is empathy for those affected and passion and genuine support for the strategies involved.

Galpin (1996) suggests that because changing the basic assumptions and beliefs of the underlying culture is very difficult, the best approach for influencing specific aspects of a culture that need to be changed for a project needs to be completed on an exception vs. all-inclusive basis. The essential skill of being able to navigate a culture and still accomplish project management goals while getting the endorsement of senior executives just underscores the critical need for strong communications and leadership skills in project managers.

A second highly desirable trait in project managers is the ability to decentralize decision making for key portions or components of their projects to ensure there is shared responsibility and ownership through the organization. Alstyne, Brynjolfsson and Madnick (1997) comment that “The very act of decentralizing decision-making – asking workers for their values and then taking them seriously – can have a positive effect on the change process by giving employees a sense of ownership and responsibility when it comes to redefining core business businesses.” This is a very desirable trait in any leader as it infuses members of their teams with a strong understanding of how their efforts are contributing to the broader objective. While some experts would argue this is an essential skill, project managers who don’t have leadership skills revert to formal authority to get cooperation from others to complete their projects. Begrudgingly associates complete tasks when ordered to by a project manager invoking the name of a senior executive, yet when a project manager can motivate through decentralizing decision making, contributors work to find their identity on the project management team they are asked to work with. There is a major difference in contributors’ motivations to a project based on this point of being coerced vs. shown how critical their contributions are.

A third highly desirable trait is the ability of project managers who lead effectively is to gain trust by demonstrating their competency, credibility, recognition, and in the case of highly technical projects, engineering expertise. Only after the completion of a series of projects will a project manager able to gain credibility and a reputation for being competent and further add to their leadership skill sets. As project managers by nature need to influence those around them, these two highly desirable attributes of have a reputation as being competent, therefore earning credibility in the organizations’ culture are especially desirable.

In highly technical industries including software development, these two attributes of credibility and a reputation for competence can make the difference between getting their projects done on time or not. That’s because in these highly technical industries there often are not enough programmers, developers, or most importantly, test engineers to complete all projects in progress at any point in time. Very often those project managers who are leaders have the highest credibility and therefore the greatest insight into what is essential for the project to be completed can quickly get cooperation by appealing to highly skilled technical professionals to get the most critical elements of their projects done. They aren’t trying to get their entire list of items done; just the most critical. Getting cooperation on this approach to getting a software project done requires a reputation for competence and with it, credibility. Project leaders who have high levels of credibility also regularly make sure the top contributors to their projects get even more credit and visibility than they do. This is critical for any project leader to become trusted by the teams they work with.

Jenkins and Oliver (1998) define this aspect of behavior that leads to successful project management as being critical for the creation of trust between project managers and the many affected employees of the company, and that is the projecting of credit on top contributors.

Summary

The intent of this analysis is to present the major differences between managers and leaders, further taking these concepts and applying them to the area of project management. While project managers are not required to have leadership skills and experience, the development and continual nurturing of these skills are essential for a project manager to attain the highest levels of performance possible. The essential attributes of a project manager who is leading a project vs. merely managing it have been discussed in addition to the critical requirement of their role as the catalyst of change in their organizations. Only by combining a very high degree of commitment and engendering commitment both from top management and from those on project teams will a leader in a project management role attain their goals.

References

Aguirre, Calderone, Jones (2004) -10 Principles of Change Management. Resilience Report, Booz, Allen Hamilton. New York, NY. Accessed from the Internet on May 10, 2008:

http://www.strategybusiness.com/resilience/rr00006?pg=all

Alstyne, Marshall van, Erik Brynjolfsson, and Stuart Madnick (1997). “The Matrix of Change: A Tool for Business Process Reengineering.” MIT Sloan School Working Papers available on the Internet, accessed on May 1, 2008:

http://ccs.mit.edu/papers/CCSWP189/ccswp189.html

Warren Bennis (1999) – the Leadership Advantage. Leader to Leader Journal. No. 12. Spring, 1999. Accessed from the Internet on May 10, 2008 from location:

http://www.leadertoleader.org/knowledgecenter/L2L/spring99/bennis.html

Caudron (1999) – Taking Charge of Change. Business Finance Magazine. January 1999. Page 27. Accessed from the Internet on May 10, 2008: http://www.businessfinancemag.com/magazine/archives/article.html?articleID=4931

Dansey-Smith (2004) – Why “soft” people skills are key to leadership development. Strategic HR Review. Fiona Dansey-Smith. Volume 3 Issue 3, March/April 2004. Pages 28-31.

Jenkins and Oliver (1998) – the Eagle & the Monk: Seven Principles of Successful Change (United Publishers Group, 1998)

Galpin (1996) – Connecting Culture to Organizational Change. Human Resources Magazine, March 1996, pp. 84-90)

Gordon and Yukl (2004) – “The Future of Leadership Research: Challenges and Opportunities,” German Journal of Human Resource Research, Vol. 18, 2004, pp. 359-365. Accessed May 2, 2008 from ProQuest database.

Kotterman (2006) – James Kotterman, Leadership vs. Management: What’s the Difference? The Journal for Quality and Participation, Summer 2006. Pages 13-17.

Lord (2002) – “Thinking Outside the Box by Looking Inside the Box: Extending the Cognitive Revolution in Leadership Theory,” Leadership Quarterly, Vol. 11, 2000, pp. 551-579. Accessed May 11, 2008 from Academic Search Elite database.

Raymond E. Miles (2007). Innovation and Leadership Values.…