Bronfenbrenner elaborated thatenvironment of individuals have big influences on their own development.
I wantto explain briefly what is environment of individuals which are affecting theirdevelopment; microsystem which is our closest environment that we aredirectly interacting with. Such as family, friends, school or work place. When I start know my mom’s friends it will bemesosystemwhich is interaction with microsystem. Exosystem gets in, when a personaffected indirectly.
For example when I was small my mom was always working. Iused see her hardly, that was affecting me negatively. Macrosystem occurs whenwe interact with cultural values, political systems and economical systems.
Again when I was small my mom changed her work place. For 2 years when I was atthe age of 5 we moved to Antalya and when I was at the age of 9 we moved back to ?anl?urfa. We stayed therefor 2 years and moved back to Kahramanmara?. So I saw 3 different cultures. Chronosystemrelationship between time and individul’s development. For example my littlesister grew up with the technology which is she was taking courses online, shewas playing games on the computer and this influenced her negatively because she wasnot playing with her friends outside.
She was not interacting with otherchildren.Iam living in Kahramanmara?. It is beautiful city life is easy and we can findanything we want there. But it’s sad to say that I do not like Kahrmanmara? andin the future I do not want to live there.
Because majority of peopleclose-minded, religious, women and men are mean to each other. People are alltalking about religion but they are doing bad things behind their back. Myopinion all religions have good intentions to make you good person.
But inKahramanmara? they are hiding themselves behind religion and doing everything whichis harming another people. People think men should be above of women. They areeducating their children this way. Even there are schools girls and boys gettheir educations separately.
Bronfenbrenner & Morris concentratesin proposition 1 while individuals developing themselves it gets more complex;interaction with people, interactionwith objects and interaction with symbols which are our direct and immediateenvironments. For effective development the interaction should continueregularly and big period of the time. Proximal process occur when there isinteraction (regularly and continuously) between environment and person (1998). According to the proposition 1 inKahramanmara? while children developing themselves they learn and see fromtheir immediate environment (family and school) ”men above women” withseparating their school and not letting them to interact with opposite gender they are learning spending time orhaving friends from other sex is bad.
Even while they are playing outside boyssay that ” you are girl you cannot do this”, when a boy cries other boy says”why are you crying like girl?” My opinion this is the result of familyeducation, school education and culture which has gender roles in it. Problemwill be solved when children gets co-education, when they see from family andculture women and man are equal they can both cry because human being isemotional. Community should recognize that there should not be a specificgender role. Common ideas for women in my community all the time women should cleanhome , women should cook, women shouldsit at home and take care of children, women cannot go out, women cannot work asan engineer, women cannot do ”men job” etc. If mother and father have theseideas, child will learn from them and grow this way. Later when this child grewup and when his wife works and not have time to cook he will bully his wifebecause she does not cook.
Because child saw from his parents ”women shouldcook”. This will result with dysfunction. Proposition 2 elaborates proximalprocess and the results of proximal process (content, form, direction andpower) is effective for development (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 1998). All individualsdifferent systems, they all give different responses while they are developingthemselves. The link with my community is there can be individuals that theyreject being close-minded or they can reject gender roles they threat women differently than majority. While individualsdevelop they can criticize and change things. For example who have the sameidea with women and men does not have their own roles, individuals can cometogether and fight against it.
Proposition 3 states that individuals -child oradult- should be active in complex interaction with people around them and withenvironment so they can have strong relationships and become committed to eachother’s well being (Bronfenbrenner& Morris, 1998). Later Bronfenbrenner critisized the proposition 3 as strongattacghment can cause psychological dependency. In my community there are some familiesthey do not allow their daughter to go to school out of Kahramanmara? even foruniversity education. And they are developing at home with the family. When Istayed alone in Cyprus I learnt and experienced many things.
I became strongerwith staying far away from my family. But these people they do not see what isgoing on with the world. They are not having experiences other than outsideof home (city).
They do not see othercultures. They became dependent to family. When they go out of the city theymay not know what to do or when they lose their family they cannot deal withthis. Because throughout their life children were living with the family. Mostof the family think that outside is not safe. Because they see Kahramanmara? isnot safe. When children with the family he/she will be safe.
As a school whenthey make activities out of school like visiting other cities it will beeffective my personal view. 2)Firstly I would like to giveinformation of Dolores O’Riordan’s life. She wasbornat 1971, 6th of September. She was an Irish musician. She was writing songssince she was 12. She was the member of The Cranberries which is rock band andfamous around the world.
At 1990 she was chosen as soloist for The Cranberriesgroup. On 1993 their first album published. Their last album was on 2012. Hersolo album was on 2007 and second solo album published on 2009. Group came backtogether and they made tours. They came to Turkey (Istanbul and Izmir) as well.
Her family was religious and conservative. She used to go tothe church when she was little. When she grew up she was respecting to CatholicChurch but she choose not to go. She was the youngest children of family.
According to her speech when she told her mom before she goes to the band ”Mom I am going to join a band” her mom answered ” I am going to band yourarse, get into your room and study”. She understood that she was not allowed to go to band. She said that shewas always believing herself.
Her dream was being a rockstar. In interview sheadded that ”it was not that much fun after 6 years living in hotels” While she was at the age of 8, someone thatclose to her, abused (sexually) her for 4 years. After this event she hadeating disorders. She also attempted to suicide at 2013. She explained this on 2013.She used to hate herself.
She also said that she have psychological issues(depression and bipolar disorder) which is doctors diagnosed. She used to takealchohol. According to the sources whileshe was pregnant she saw her husband with a woman at the bar. Later she wrote asong for this event. She divorced with her husband at 2014. She lost her fatheron 2011 because of cancer and she was very sad.
On 2015 She got married at the age of 23 on1994. After three years which is 1997 she gave born to her first child Taylor.After Taylor, Molly was born on 2001 and at 2005 her third children came to theworld. Between 1994 – 2009 she lived in Canada with her family. (Her husbandhad a child from his ex-relationship). On 2013 they all with 4 children movedback to Ireland. According to the her speech she was happy withher children.
Her children were made her strong and they changed her life. Shemoved on from problems with her children. She lost her father on 2011 she wasvery sad. She explained that in her interview”life is not about money, life is all about the love”. In another interviewshe said that ” depression is an hard process but I had happy times also,especially with my children, there are ups and downs in life, life is nothingif there is no ups and downs” She died in England at the age of 46,for an unknown reason date of 15 January 2018.(Resourcesfrom YouTube, NTV, BBC, Wikipedia) According to Bengtson and Allen, Life Course Theory how; family life, environment of individuals,early life times or events, connection with time and socioeconomic time whichthey are in affects their future life (1993). Principle 1 states thatthroughout lifetime development continues.
It goes until death. O’Riordan had problematic life process. There were upsand downs. In every processes she was changing. She waslearning or developing herself. These processes affecting each other and allrelated to each other.
Outcomes were sometimes negative. She was in badsituation psychologically. But with time she felt better.
Over time she changedphysically also, she did not stay with the same health conditions. When a personabused her after a while she wasanorectic. Fullerton and colloquies found that sexual abuse was related with(scored higly) eating disorders (1995).
Emotionally she was not feeling wellfor long time of period because of what she lived. Her success made her strongshe felt again better. Her children made her strong. Her emotions changed. Cognitivelyshe changed.
Before her father’s death she was thinking and dreaming of theperson who abused her. Principle 2 examines that individuals create their life withtheir choices. Opportunities and constraints given to them have influenceswhile they shape their life. These constrains can be also social or historical.
O’Riordan’s mom was not supporting her. Herfamily was not giving her chance to exhibit her abilities. But she made herdreams come true she believed herself. She was very successful. When the personabused her perhaps she could not tell anyone. If she could tell even herfamily, maybe she would get psychological support earlier and it was not affecther for all her life.
Principle 3 emphasizethat timing is an important item in individuals life. she got married at theage of 23 she was not that small. When she got in group she was 18.
She did notstudy she could go to university. She was dreaming of being Rockstar after 6years she was not that happy. Principle of linked lives which is shared relationships examines that lives are connected with eachother(reciprocally) (Elder, 1998). Experiences are linked with the family. O’Riordan lost her father she felt sobad, she divorced she was having bad times but according to her interview shewas happy again with her children. Last principle emphasized that individualsshapes their environment in which historical time they are in it and at which place they are. She was musician andtechnology is important for making song. From 1971 technology just started todevelop well.
She was using this and making music with materials. She lived in Ireland,England and Canada which means she would get opportunities easily. 4) Give an example of proximal process from yourown experienceMymom and my dad were always working. That’s why I was living with my grandmothermost of the time. My mom was always busy and when she came home she wasstressful or tired. When I tried to joke around her or tried to talk to her shewas giving me reactions that ”I am tired. Be silent, do not make anywheredirty etc.” and she was always gettingangry to everything.
When I go to the garden and my peers with their momplaying or talking I was getting jealous. From inside I knew that she loves mebut she was just so much tired and stressful. Her job was accountant. She gavethese reactions for long time such as until I became 14 years old. In thisperiod I got close to my grandmother. Because while my mother works mygrandmother used to take care of me. after a while I was silent all the time. Myadolescence years I was always in my room when I come to home and still my mom was always tired.
Sometimes when I triedto talk to her I was stopping myself because I knew that she will ignore meagain. I guess all my critical periods passed without her. When I was small,when I was teenager I was not having conversations with her like my friends do.I never talked to her about my friends I never told her when I have boyfriend. Iam 25 years old but still I cannot tell that I have boyfriend. Sometimes I rememberwhen I tried to talk to her she was judging me. For her I did not have goodfriends either.
After I came to Cyprus and we stayed away from each other sherealised the distance between us I guess. Because when I go back for holidayshe always nice to me and she comes my room and tries to talk. She retired when I was 18 years old. After 18 years ofbeing home I came to Cyprus. Interacting with my mom affected my friendshipsand relationship with others.
I was closing myself to others because I wasscared when I say something they would react me negatively. I am still surprisinghow people can talk everything with their mom- I guess when I say that I have boyfriendshe will still not accept it and when she accept she will control me from faraway- with closing myself to everyone I had low self-esteem. I did not trustmyself in any fields.
When I started to psychology l was realising thingsclearly like how important mother-child interaction. How our first interactingwith family experiences affecting us in our later life. Not like before but sometimesstill I am having problems with people around me because I am closing myself tothem. Maybe this would be a stereotype but one day when I have a child I willbe open with him/her. I will always give chance to talk to me as a mother whensomething happen. 3)Main aim of the article explaining how developmental contextualism ensureconceptual frame work for psychological counsellor of school.
American PsychologicalAssociation elaborates that contribution of psychology is important foreducation (1997). DEVELOPMENTAL-CONTEXTUALISM:A NEW DEVELOPMENTAL FRAMEWORK Other theories and developmental contextualismfocuses on how individual’s environment affects them (Rutter, 1996). But contextualismgoes beyond the other theories and examines how people differ. Shortly peoplecan affect from their contexts but contexts also can affect individual’sdevelopment. Here both context andindividuals active.
These context are community, culture, family, neighbours,work, school etc. this variability of context gives flexibility to the personfor applying new directions and developing of individuals. With the variety ofplasticity or flexibility rates of showing negative outcomes decreases. Most ofthe theorists took into consideration until the age of 18 but developmentalcontextualism took into consideration also consideration broadly. To showbetter profit of developmental-contextualism for counselling psychologists who isworking with schools, they have determined four major principles.
First one iscontext affects individual’s development. This principle suggests that school counsellingpsychologist can mix school and community together, cooperate in school settingwhich includes intervention programmes. Second principle suggests that which is Bio-Psycho-Social Development; if achild having problems (mentally, psychologically, emotionally or physically)he/she cannot be successful.
Dryfoos suggested that being together with professional service delivery and follow-upand checking up on children if there isa problem in this way they can specify the problem (1995). Third principlewhich is Development Across the Life Span focuses on parents. children’sparents are important for the development of their own child. That’s why schooland parents should be in contact for the children’s development. Such as childrearing classes.
Moreover this principle includes education of parent which isvery important. Last principle suggests that counseling psychologist can use theirknowledge with more multicultural domains about risk and resilience. These 4 principles can guide for interventionsand psychologists who works in schools.
In this way they can mix both communityand school together. They applied their aim with the new perspective which isdevelopmental contextualism.