Biodiversity means a wide variety of organisms ranging from the very small micro-organisms (amoeba) to the very large organisms for example elephant.
Biodiversity is also defined as the “totality of genes, species and ecosystems of a region” and this refers to the fact that living beings of different environments and places are together defined and known as biodiversity.When living and non-living creatures both depend on each other and interact in order to survive is known as Ecosystem. It is a cycle which continues otherwise it would not be able to exist.Human beings are existing on planet Earth from a long time and extinction of many species are either directly or indirectly related to humans.
Biodiversity is unequally divided on Earth, and is mostly found in the tropics. These tropical forest ecosystems consumes less than 10 percent of earth’s surface, and contain approximately 90 percent of the world’s species. Biodiversity is the result of nearly 3.5 billion years of continuous changings and evolution. Sudden and unexpected changes in the environment have caused the issue of decreasing biodiversity and it is acceptable to include humans in the causes of it.Issue 1:Habitat loss;A specific place where an organism grows and is provided with shelter and protection is known as a habitat. It is an ecological area where an organism grows and reproduces along with its similar species.
The rate of habitat loss is increased to 85% of every specie and the reasons are deforestation, urbanization and increasing food production. Around 70% of the world’s plants and animals live on land and if their environment is ruined with the process of deforestation, they would cease to exist. It is a process in which forests are cleared permanently to utilize the available land for other purposes. Deforestation causes loss of resources and natural vegetation as when we cut down forests, we do not only face lack of oxygen and greenery but the birds and other organisms living over there also lose their homeland. The greatest rates of deforestation are happening in Brazil, Indonesia and Nigeria.
The animals which are already extinct in the past two centuries are West African Black Rhinoceros, passenger pigeon, Sea Mink and many more. Their reason to become vanished are human beings as deforestation is the cause.A forest is either degraded or fermented. Degradation is the process in which a forest is destroyed by the pollution in the environment. On the other hand, fermentation is the process in which an area of the forest is divided into many parts. Both of these are harmful for the animals and plants which are living over there.
The rate of deforestation can be reduced if a specific area is chosen to grow plants. That place should specially be for this purpose and should cover a large area. Buying recycled products from the market would help out too as if those products would be utilized, no more cutting of trees would be needed. It takes years for plants to grow back and burning them just in a few minutes to use them for a short period of while is actually unfair. Although, we may do it if there is an urgency but doing it without any reason would cause us disadvantages in the future. Informing the people in your surroundings will make a society tidy and another great way is to donate fund to the teams that are already existing for this purpose. An example is of world wide fund for nature which is constantly working for this purpose.
Urbanization covers a vast area as many human beings shift from one place to another where they can settle and construct factories. In November, 2011, it was found that increasing urbanization is decreasing the land of the native animals that were already living over there. Urbanization increases migration, lack of resources, diseases and it pollutes the environment. It has occurred because of the natural increase in the population of Earth. People are forced to move from one place to another due to this reason.However, it increased the place for a human to live but the plants and animals over there surely lost their homeland. The world’s most urbanized countries are Honk Kong, Singapore, Bermuda, Macao and the list goes on.
According to a research done on Oct 23 2016, it was discovered that the regions with least urbanization are Asia, Africa and the caribbean, with Trindad and Tobago, Burundi, Papua New Guinea, Uganda, Malawi, Nepal and Sri Lanka among the most rural countries. Habitat loss is bad because it instantly causes the separation of species from their mates and food. Eventually, they would cease to exist.
The loss of habitats would lead the humans towards their own destruction as it would cause increased erosion, degraded water quality and the extinction of plants and animals.Issue 2:Human have introduced some new species intentionally which are now known as invasive species. These species have adapted in their new environment and have spread unchecked, threatening and local biodiversity. These species have been identified as the second greatest threat to biodiversity after habitat loss.When a typical specie is thrown into a habitat from which it does not belong but can survive in it, causes harm to the species living over there which will ultimately consider it as an invading specie. These invasive species are spread by human activities unintentionally. The goods travel around the world very quickly and they often carry uninvited species with them. Invasive species are so effective that half of the American’s species are endangered because of it.
These species are fine to an extent but when these alien species initiate their negative consequences, they harm the environment, species and human health as well. These are considered as a threat to the biodiversity because these become predators, competitors, parasites, hybridizers and diseases to our local plants and animals. However, these invasive species can be used for an advantage too. If a plant is placed in an environment where it does not belong but still it can be a source of food for the species living in there, it will be a great help. Although, it has been deduced that the environment is disturbed so much that placing these plants might not help out.
The top 3 invasive species include Asian Carp, Zebra Mussel and Cane toad. Paper mulberry, house crow and khapra beetle are the invasive species found in Pakistan. Whatever the case might be, these species increase in number day by day.Comparison and Contrast;Out of both the issues, habitat loss is the major one and needs to be more focused. It is the greatest threat to the biodiversity as species extinct because their homelannd is snatched by the human beings and then they use it for their own purposes. Urbanization can also be controlled but the increasing population might just not allow it. On the other hand, as far as it is related with habitat loss, if land is less deforested, the rate of biodiversity loss will decrease too.
Invasive species are increasing and even some people are making profits by engaging in such deals. This can be controlled if government take strict measures against the ones who violent the rules. Still, invasive species do not cause harm to species as much as habitat loss does hence, saving the homeland of the species is much compulsory than any other issue which is raised.
Conclusion and reflection; My personal perspective has been changed after all the research that I have done. Before exploring all the websites, I thought that specie extinction has become such a global issue which cannot be stopped no matter how hard a person tries. I was proved wrong and if every individual wills to save the biodiversity loss, a massive change will be seen sooner or later. If we focus towards the causes which are leading to such results then it would be far easy for humans to be safe from such destruction. Saving the habitats and providing the endangered species with extra protection would decrease the chances of them being extinct. Also, if humans stop over-using the animals and plants, they would be able to use them for a longer time resulting in the betterment of biodiversity.
Transportation of species which are not required to be in a specific habitat should be banned as this will result in deduction of invasive species. If these causes are manages, loss of biodiversity can be decreased.