Behavior Modification Perspective
Behavior Modification Perspective (BMP) emphasizes on manipulation of environmental factors to impact the behavior. BMP places the focus on external influences (such as stimuli, reinforcement) which can be designed to cause behavioral changes. The fact that some behaviorists advocates BMP that internal psychological factors (such as needs, attitudes) and the idea of learning are thoroughly discarded in behavioral study. Considering behavioral changes and external stimuli that are able to influence such behavior are sufficient. That is, trying to clarify how internal processes influence the behavior is unnecessary. A less fundamental perspective, that is accepted here, suggests preserving clarifications of internal forces and mixing them with examination of environmental factors. Thus, BMP is viewed as possessing a specific concentration, but sharing some theories such as conditioning and reinforcement with principles of learning, that integrate internal psychological forces to interpret behavior.
According to Nord and Peter, BMP comprehensively illustrates the benefit of behavioral learning in marketing1. Hence, an essential advantage of BMP is that it supports a standardized examination of purchase and purchase-related behaviors. Similarly, it shows particular strategies for altering and controlling these behaviors in light of the control of the environmental variables. For instance, through suitable control of price, distribution, and promotional variables, a marketer can increase the utility of an item. Behavioral learning can be utilized as a technique to modify behavior. “If the item is satisfying, the likelihood of repeating the behavior will increase”. That is, behaviors that are positively strengthened will probably recur than non-reinforced ones. Since repeating purchase behavior is a measure of loyalty to the brand, adding positive reinforcement to desired behavior must be a definitive objective of the marketer2.
Behavioral Perspective Model (BPM)
Behavioral Perspective Model is developed by Foxall so as to incorporate consumer research with behavioral theories, or it is a means of integrating logical critiques derived from empirical investigation. Foxall recaps the model as depicting the rate of responding as a function of the open environment (current behavior setting) in which they happen and educational and utilitarian reinforcement accessible or guaranteed by the environment3.
The behavior setting is where the consumers are exposed to some kinds of provocation indicating a decision-making situation, which involves social and physical elements. BPM represents the adjusted version of the three-term contingency and place consumer behavior at the crossing point of the present behavior setting and their learning history. Hence, the BPM establishes an environmental viewpoint to consumer behavior and consists of circumstantial forces into the study of buying and usage. In behavioral language, consumer response depends on learning history of each individual, the environmental setting in which consumers are exposed to, and the consequences the behavior generates.