Before recorded history, human beingsdiscovered that grape juice, when exposed to naturally occurring yeasts,becomes wine (Torr, 1974:p.
14) and it is the process called “Fermentation”. Asa result it has this unique flavor that satisfies individuals. Therefore asyear passed by alcohol plays a vital role and has become a culture in any typeof occasions such as weddings, birthdays, Christmas and a lot more. Obviously,an occasion will not be complete without alcohol. In many societies, drinking behavioris considered important for the whole social order, and so drinking is definedand limited in accordance with fundamental motifs of the culture (Mandelbaum,1965:p.
281).Unfortunately, alcohol can result to anegative approach to other. Aside being one of the harmful causes to health, itcan also be dangerous to our society even to other individuals.
ALCOHOLICS are for the most part dissocializedpeople; people who are somewhat dependent, over sensitive, shy, frightened; whofeel isolated, guilty, and remorseful; people who increasingly have dropped outof their emotionally meaningful groups; who have increasingly lost interest inthe values and attitudes that are most important to their society (Bacon, 1957:Vol. 10 (10),p.35-44).
When a person drink alcohol withoutself-consciousness, with emotional problem and the inability to make the rightdecision most likely to commit aggressive criminal offenses such as homicides,sexual abuse, assaults, child abuse, robbery, murder and more.The problem most often associated withheavy drinking, however, is alcoholism. Simply put, alcoholism is addiction toalcohol, but beyond this basic definition the symptoms of alcoholism can bedifficult to pinpoint. They include a craving for alcohol, lack of self-controlwhen drinking, a high tolerance for the effects of alcohol, and physicalwithdrawal symptoms, such as sweating, shakiness, and anxiety, when alcohol useceases (Torr, 1974:p.
14). Alcohol is a cultural artifact; theform and meanings of drinking alcoholic beverages are culturally defined, as arethe uses of any other major artifact. The form is usually quite explicitlystipulated, including the kind of drink that can be used, the amount and rateof intake, the time and place of drinking, the accompanying ritual, the sex andage of the drinker, the roles involved in drinking, and the role behaviorproper to -drinking. The meanings of drinking, its relation to other aspects ofthe culture and society, are usually more implicit. Thus drinking in a particularsociety may be either a sacred or a profane act, depending on the context, andthe people may not be aware of the basic principles and meanings that areactually involved (Mandelbaum, 1965: p.281)About 100,000 deaths a year can bewholly or partially attributed to drinking, and alcoholism reduces lifeexpectancy by 10 to 12 years. Next to smoking, it is the most commonpreventable cause of death in America.
Although studies indicate that adultswho drink moderately (about one drink a day) have a lower mortality rate thantheir non-drinking peers, their risk for untimely death increases with heavierdrinking. Any protection that occurs with moderate alcohol intake appears to beconfined to adults over 60 who have risks for heart disease. The earlier aperson begins drinking heavily, the greater their chance of developing seriousillnesses later on.
Alcoholism can kill in many different ways, and, ingeneral, people who drink regularly have a higher rate of deaths from injury,violence, and some cancers ((Torr, 1974:p.23)According to Robins & Przybeck (1985),alcohol initiation occurs earlier and earlier, on average adolescents now taketheir first drink at the age of 12 years. This problem seems to be wrongfullyunderestimated, despite the fact that it holds numerous negative consequences:onset of drinking at an early age has been found to be associated not only withlater alcohol dependence, but also with drug abuse, law violations, riskysexual behavior and aggressive behavior during adolescence (Psychiatria Danubina,2013; Vol. 25, Suppl. 2: pp 99–101).The drinking population can berepresented by a continuum ranging from those who drink alcohol withoutproblems, through those who drink with problems at a level which allows them tofunction relatively normally, through to those who are dependent drinkerssuffering withdrawal symptoms. In between there are many shades of grey.
While,without doubt, crime can be associated with dependent problematic use ofalcohol, many of the problems the police deal with are not a result ofdependent drinkers but are ordinary drinkers who have ‘binged’ and cannotcontrol their behavior (Dehan, A, 1999: p. 1-2)However, alcohol dependence accordingto the ICD-10 criteria (three or more have to be fulfilled) was diagnosed in94.1% of the alcoholics with an early onset (? 25 years), but only in 62.2% ofthose with late onset (P < 0.0001). Significant differences between thesegroups were found for the following criteria: preoccupation with drinking (P< 0.0001), impaired capacity to control drinking (P < 0.
01), strongdesire to drink alcohol (P < 0.01), and a trend towards a lower rate oflifetime psychiatric comorbidity. The alcoholics with late onset reported fewerprevious detoxifications and a lower actual alcohol consumption (Wetterling,T,Veltup, C, Ulrich, J & Driessen, M, 2003: p.112–118)Also according to Peter Bjerregard andT. Kue Young (1998, p. 158), Misuse of alcohol has many effects on health butin Inuit the most important are accidents and violence resulting in cuts,bruises, fractures, head injuries, etc.
Drownings, falls, frostbite, burns andpneumonia are other results of intoxication and there is a direct associationbetween alcohol misuse and suicides. In a longer perspective, drinking alsoleads to social problems in the home such as spouse and child abuse or familybreakup, and to economic problems and loss of jobs due to instability at work.Finally, fetal alcohol syndrome is a serious condition of infants whose mothershave consumed large amounts of alcohol during pregnancy.Because alcohol is a primary factor insuch a large variety of problem behaviours and consequences, the focus is onalcohol specifically rather than on related issues such as fetal alcohol disordersor other abused substances (Korhonen, 2004: 2).According to Klingemann & Gmel, (2001),Alcohol consumption is linked to many harmful consequences for the individualdrinker, the drinker’s immediate environment and society as a whole.
Suchsocial consequences as traffic accidents, workplace-related problems, familyand domestic problems, and interpersonal violence have been receiving morepublic or research attention in recent years, indicating a growing interest ina broader concept of alcohol-related consequences ( World Health Organization,2004: 59). As for Gmel & Rehm, (2003), On the other hand, however, socialconsequences affect individuals other than the drinker e.g. passengers involvedin traffic casualties, or family members affected by failure to fulfill socialrole obligations, or incidences of violence in the family. Ultimately, however,these events have an impact on society as a whole insofar as they affecteconomic productivity or require the attention and resources of the criminaljustice or health care system, or of other social institutions ( World HealthOrganization, 2004: 59).According to Oxford Dictionary ofSociology, an offence which goes beyond the personal and into the publicsphere, breaking prohibitory rules or laws, to which legitimate punishments orsanctions are attached, and which requires the intervention of a publicauthority.’Society regards the victim of alcoholas possessing free will and capacity to understand his relations to society,hence his failure is regarded as vicious.
This condition has been acceptedwithout question until very recently. Both the decision of the courts andmodern teaching assume that the irresponsibility of persons who commit crimeunder the influence of spirits, is a subterfuge to diminish responsibility.Crimes committed by persons intoxicated, or under the influence of alcohol areconstantly increasing (T.D Crothers, 1914: p.
859). Its harmfulness for health is known and thisfeature of it is a reasonably big burden on the Hungarian public health care.At the same time consumer satisfying services are not considered to be criminalactivities and even consuming itself is legal, not illegal.
So being under theinfluence of alcohol (to be drunk) is not regulated by the legislatures in thefield of criminal law, but crimes committed under the influence of alcohol areevaluated and sanctioned separately. If the consumption of alcohol leads tocommitment of crime, the influence of alcohol will be direct or indirect (Deres,P, Ph.D: p27).The social understanding of the studyof deviance and crime examine cultural norms; how they change over time, howthey are enforced, and what happens to individuals and societies when norms arebroken. In sociology, social deviance or deviance means those behaviours orcharacteristics that violate significant social norms and expectations and arenegatively valued by a large number of people ( Nalah, Bala, A, Ishaya &Daniel, L, 2013: p, 1)