Bacteria wasdiscovered by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, a Dutch trader that lived in late 17thcentury Delft.
Van Leeuwenhoek was able to create a modern standards crudelenses which were thick. The lenses were able to provide 200-fold magnificationwhere Leeuwenhoek used it to describe single-cellular organisms includingbacteria. He then wrote to The Royal Society in London in 1682 about thediscoveries that he had been making since 1676. He was amazed by the hugenumber of small individual cells that present in the scrapings from teeth wherehe called those cells as ‘animalcules’, probably the first bacteria that have everseen (Amyes, 2013).
LouisPasteur, a French microbiologist then discovered that bacteria were present inthe air and they can be introduced on particles of dust. He had done experimenton spoiled food and beer where he noticed a large number of small, rod-shapedbacteria were present rather than yeast cells. With the knowledge he gainedfrom his discoveries and discoveries of others, Germ Theory was introduced.Germ Theory is the theory that microscopic organisms are the major causes ofdiseases, where the organisms are too small to be seen by naked eyes. It wasalso discovered that each individual bacterium can only causes one disease. Bacteria are important for the survival ofplants and animals and some bacteria are also beneficial to humans. Bacteriacan be vary in terms of their size, shape, cellular and geneticcharacteristics. Bacteria are among the smallest living organisms and theirstructure can only be observed by using powerful electron microscope.
A colourdyeing technique known as Gram stain is used to visualize the bacteria. HansChristion Gram, a Danish physician was the one who developed the Gram stain in1884, where the bacteria will be exposed to two dyes and the cells will turnedpurple colour. After washing process, Gram-positive bacteria will retain thepurple colour while Gram-negative bacteria will fade into pink colour. Bacteriacan cause life threatening event in human but also can be used to createvaccines and antibiotics (Rogers, 2011). Antibiotics are the most commonly usedantimicrobial agent that can kill the microorganism or inhibit the microbialgrowth.
However, if the antibiotics are not properly used, it may causes anadverse effect where the bacteria can resist the antibiotics. Due to theevolution of bacteria into multi-resistant microorganism, the effectiveness ofantibiotics in inhibiting the microbial growth has reduced. Moreover, theapproach of choosing a single enzymes as the candidates for inhibition anddevelop it into antimicrobial agent is not an easy matter. It has notsuccessful as hoped. The discovery of antimicrobial agent cannot simply startwith a novel unexploited target and proceed without considering the ability ofany inhibitor that may enter the bacterial cell which will lead to the resistanceof the bacteria to the antibiotics (Gualerzi et al., 2013). This problem has led to the increasing in cases dueto microbial infection especially wound infection.
Wound infection is caused bythe infiltration of microorganism to the wound and causes damage to that areawhich may lead to systemic illness and delays the healing process in thatparticular area. Inorder to solve the problem, honey, propolis and bee bread can be used as thealternative to inhibit the growth of microorganism instead of using antibiotic.Honey, propolis and bee bread can be used as the alternative medicine inhealing wound infection. The method of using moist wound healing had proven tohave fasten the healing process of wound (Dorai, 2012). For example, Honey hasbeen identified as one of the food substance that has healing properties andrecent research found that honey is effective in eliminating infections forwide range of wounds and is fully effective against such antibiotic-resistantbacteria (Bang et al.
, 2003). Researchshowed that using alternative medicine in wound healing process can provide apromising result. Otherthan antimicrobial properties, honey, propolis and bee bread also haveantioxidant properties. Heart disease is the number 1 killer in terms of diseasesand health-related problems in Malaysia. According to Department of StatisticsMalaysia (2016), heart disease still remained as the primary cause of deathamong Malaysians in the past 10 years (2005-2014). Based in their findings,there are 13.
5 % of death related to ischemic heart disease or coronary heartdisease in 2014, followed by pneumonia (12.0 %), cerebrovascular disease (7.1%), septicaemia (6.1 %) and transport accidents (5.
6 %). Malaysia is ranked 57in the world for deaths related to coronary heart disease (CHD). CHD is mostcommon in people aged 40 and above, however there is also risk of heart diseaseto occur in the younger people aged from 20 to 30.
Compared to other country,Malaysians get heart attack at younger age than others. This has causes a hugeconcern to Department of Health Malaysia. In order to decrease the cases ofheart disease in Malaysia, honey, propolis and bee bread have become the healthsupplement that can help reduce the chances of getting heart disease. Honey andpropolis as well as bee bread are rich in phenolic compounds as naturalantioxidant.
There are many studies conducted and it showed that regular intakeof phenolic compounds help to reduce the risk of heart disease. While forcoronary heart disease, phenolic compounds provide protective effect whichinclude antichrombotic, anti-ischemic, antioxidant and vasorelaxant (Khalil andSulaiman, 2010). Eventhough there are many studies conducted on honey, propolis and bee bread, butmost of it was about other species of stingless bee that can be found in theother countries. There is not much research done on the antimicrobialproperties of Trigona sp. honey,propolis and bee bread in Malaysia.
While many of the research showed apositive result that honey, propolis and bee bread of most stingless beespecies have the antimicrobial properties as well as the antioxidantproperties, it has a high probability that the products of Trigona sp. stingless bee has the same properties as the otherstingless bee species. Thisstudy aims to investigate the antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Trigona sp. honey, propolis and bee bread.The antimicrobial properties of Trigonasp. honey, propolis and bee bread against Escherichia coli (G-, ATTC 9027), Salmonella thyhimirium subsp Enterica(G-, ATTC 14028), Staphylococcusaureus subsp. Aureus (G+, ATTC25923) and Bacillus cereus (G+, ATTC25923) using disc diffusion method and broth microdilution method, whileantioxidant assay that will be used is DPPH.
The total phenolic content andtotal flavonoid content will also be conducted. 1.2 Objectives of studyi. Toidentify the antimicrobial properties of Trigonasp.
honey, propolis and bee bread. ii. To studythe antioxidant activity of Trigona sp.honey, propolis and bee bread.iii. Toinvestigate the total phenolic content and total flavonoid content in Trigona sp. honey, propolis and bee bread.