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Society and Friends Essay

McDonalidization is creating automated, highly efficient, quantifiable, and homogenized processes and systems. The term refers to the fast food chain but can be witnessed in almost every area of life, from education to entertainment. McDonaldization arguably began with assembly-line production, long before fast food existed. The trend has permeated much more than the industrial domain, and has impacted the ways people live their lives. Although McDonaldization has some benefits, such as increased efficiency, predictability, and standardization, the detriments to McDonalidization include dehumanization, immorality, lack of creativity, and loss of soul.

McDonaldization provides the illusion of saving time, because processes are automated. Many companies find that McDonaldization is necessary for them to meet performance standards or turn a profit. For some companies, it becomes critical to manage supply chains in a way that requires bulk purchasing. A mechanized workforce, literally and figuratively, is also part of the McDonaldization process. Some workforces are being replaced by machines, while others are being driven to perform like machines instead of people. Workers in McDonalized companies are valued for quantitative measures such as how many minutes they work, how cheap their labor is, or how many units they can produce in the shortest period of time. In a world where every penny of profitability matters most, McDonaldization may seem like the ideal method of production. Therefore, one problem with the McDonald’s method is that it creates anomie: a sense of disconnection and apathy. Workers who are valued as numerical data will not feel valued as human beings.

Moreover, the products and services created through the McDonald’s method are devoid of character and creativity because they are mechanized. Consumers seeking unique items of clothing or gifts cannot rely on a McDonald’s-like supplier or retail chain and instead must seek out a boutique. The prices may be higher in the boutique because of the lack of McDonaldization. However, some consumers would prefer one independently designed dress over ten that were made in the McDonald’s style. It is possible that both types of businesses, those that are McDonald’s-like, and those that are not, can coexist. Some consumers do not mind a low-quality, mass-produced product made using ethically questionable business practices, whereas others mind a great deal.

The difference between McDonaldized beer and craft beer is a good example, because it highlights the pros and cons of each. McDonalized beer, such as Budweiser, is mass-produced in a McDonalds-like method in which homogenization and cost are more important than creativity and quality. Budweiser is, like McDonald’s food, a relatively cheap product that reflects the caliber of the ingredients. Craft beer, on the other hand, can be expensive. The methods of producing craft beer are costlier not only because of the lack of large supply chain and higher cost of quality, specialized ingredients, but also possibly due to the company culture in small businesses.…

How Is Financial Risk Management Applied Effectively by a Sports BusinessEssay

Financial Risk Management: The Sports Industry

Financial risk management is the process of reducing a firm’s exposure to various risks. According to Emery (2011), it is a process that enables organizations to reduce failures and increase their profitability by carefully evaluating the risks they are exposed to and developing strategies to manage them. The sports industry can learn a lot from the business industry in regard to risk management as it is often prone to issues such as corruption and drug abuse, which it is often insufficiently prepared/equipped to deal with. The office of Sport and Recreation Tasmania (as cited in Emery, 2011) claims that today, risk management is a central part of sports organizations’ strategies because it enables management result to balanced and responsible decision making. This text examines risks sports businesses are exposed to, how financial risk management can be applied, and the strategies that should be applied to protect business finances.

Risks faced by sports businesses

Finance risks

Most major leagues operate under the constant threat of financial instability. Bankruptcies distort products and interfere with the financial capability of an entire league. The American National Football League (NFL), for instance, is known to be the most successful league globally but it constantly struggles to secure its financial stability (Troelsen and Kuperman, 2006). It uses salary caps and equal revenue distribution tactics to increase cost savings and reduce loss control.

Reputational risks

News of corruption, age cheating, identity theft and doping are becoming quite popular in the sports industry. These charges are bad for the image of any sports business and league, since they damage hard earned credibility. The International Association of Athletics Federation (IAAF) acknowledges that “some member organizations and athletes will go to great lengths to gain a competitive advantage” (Troelsen and Kuperman, 2006). Sports organizations have to devise ways to deal with image risks to avoid reduced profitability that stems from low ratings and poor performance.

Accidents and injuries

According to Emery (2011) every injury in sports is accompanied by 600 near misses and 10 minor injuries. Risk management should reduce the number of injuries and near misses that occur by identifying potential dangers and evaluating options that can reduce severity of accidents to athletes and the audience.

Effective use of financial risk management in sports businesses

The risk management process in sports related businesses comprises of three steps: risk assessment, risk treatment and risk control (Emery, 2011). Risk assessment involves an analysis of the specific risks that a particular business is prone to. Once identified, the severity of the risk is evaluated to find out the danger it pose to that particular business. The next stage is the treatment of the risks that have been identified. Suitable risk reduction plans are identified, and if they will reduce or eliminate the financial, reputation, or accident risks, they are implemented. The final stage is risk control where the progress of risk reduction plans is monitored and the achievements communicated to management. Constant review is needed to ensure new risks in the industry are well-handled.

There are four risk management techniques that can be applied by sport organizations to manage the…

Death Unnaturally Euthanasia Suicide Capital Punishment Term Paper

death: suicide, euthanasia and the death penalty. Looking at certain aspects of each and discussing the issues concerning society. Also providing a sociological out look and economic basis for the arguments.

Death: Three Chances

Suicide is not a new phenomenon it has been around as long as mankind. The causes of suicide have been discussed on many occasions, and different theories have merged regarding the reason for which someone would commit suicide. There have been many studies undertaken in order to understand the phenomena in greater detail. Certain social factors were identified as being causal or contributing to this phenomenon, and suicides was broken down into different types, with different causes.

Henslin just as Durkheim before has looked at suicide, which Durkheim defined as any action which, leads subsequently to the death of the individual, either through positive action, such as hanging oneself or shooting oneself, or by way of negative action, such as refusing to eat.

In the book ‘ Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach’ by Henslin we can see a broad range of approaches to the discipline of sociology. In applying them to the subject of suicide we can apply different approaches.

If we first consider the structural functionalist perspective. This is where the family is seen as the key to maintaining social order. The family is a unit that fulfils the critical functions for both society as well as individuals, giving protection and security in practical as well as financial terms to members of that family as well as acting as a regulator on behavior.

If we consider that suicide rationalized by Durkheim as a result of the way the individual fitted in with society, and that of that we need to consider the idea of regulators that he introduced theorized about. These regulators are an integral part of society and act as a regulating influence on both the physical instincts and the moral instincts and feelings. (An example of a social regulator is the institution of marriage. These regulating factors have a definite impact with the individual and in society as a whole. The way in which these regulators effect the moral feelings of society would fit in with the structural functionalist approach. Questions that may then be considered would be issues such as what was the family background of the suicide or potential suicide, how did they fit in with their family and how were their personal relationships. This could lead to theories being undertaken in terms of the reasons behind the suicide. The four types of suicide classified by Durkheim were egoistic suicide, altruistic suicide, anomic suicide, and fatalistic suicide. Each of these has their own set of characteristics. Each can be seen as emanating from a different type of person. Durkheim looks not only at the family but also ‘patterns of behavior that characterize a social group’ Henslin, 2000).

Egotistical suicide was as a result of too little or poor levels of social cohesion, whereas altruistic suicide is an excess of social integration and a lack of individualization. Therefore the family background may be seen as pertinent to this level of enquiry, however there are some aspects that structural functionalism does not consider which may also be relevant in the study of suicide. However, as Henslin tells us we must also be careful in any conclusions we reach as “A spurious correlation is one where the apparent correlation between two variables is actually caused by a third variable” (Henslin, 2000).

If we consider the aspect of Social Conflict then we may find a greater degree of affinity with the ideas of Karl Marx where it is a natural state for there to be conflict, with those who are exploited and those who exploit. This paradigm considers the macros forces, such as the economic condition, and the way that this may influence a fail and cause conflict within that family.

With the ideas of Durkheim’s altruistic suicide there is also some relevance as this covers the idea of the external influences on the family and their place in society. Altruistic suicide may be seen as typified by mass suicides such as that of the heavens gate followers. Here there may be questions regarding the way the family was influenced and how, but the paradigm also has some shortfalls it does not allow us to consider the interpersonal relationships that will have surrounded the suicide or the cohesion in the family that were allowed in the former model

In the final model of analyses, that of symbolic interaction we see that it is focused on the interaction between individuals and keeps families together. The interactions are seen as verbal and none verbal, therefore suicide itself may be seen as an interaction in one form. Here there is the understanding of the individuals creation of their own reality, and the importance of the family when it comes to socialization. It is a complementary viewpoint to those already mentioned.

This only focuses on the micro perceptive, and it is here that we may find individuals ability to make rational judgments for them selves is effected. They may be the victims of a social expectation, as seen in the first paradigm, so that they will commit suicide. To undertake this action is to put forward the individual must have little self-worth.

Just as the egotistical suicide the individual who undertakes Altruistic suicide is very unhappy, but they see things in a different light that the egoistic, they see things as if nothing feels real, the whole world and their interaction with it feels unreal, whereas the egoistic suicide will see things as all too real.

Altruistic suicide in some circumstances Durkheim claimed was ‘chronic’. The example cited may be those cases where in the military soldiers would regularly commit suicide for a variety of reasons. It may be due a disappointment as simple as not gaining leave or for a feeling of failure on a mission.

These all need to be considered in the overall picture in order to understand what is going on. The modern world is very complex, and to limit oneself to only one perspective is not to take a ‘down to earth approach’.

In recent years the subject of assisted suicide or Euthanasia has been one of the most controversial and hotly debated subjects. With one respect the current social framework places great value on the personal agency paradigm, with the concept of autonomy and freedom of choice ranked as an important aspect of a free society. However, the idea of assisted suicide, arguable an ultimate expression of the individual autonomy of this type of framework is seen in terms of right and wrong, not of choice. When this is applied to those with a mental illness or condition then the role of limited personal discretion may be asserted as valid, however, when it is a case of terminal illness and a well considered decision taken by the patient for personal reasons then the arguments become weaker, but still emotive. Therefore the argument as to whether this practice should be legalised is one that has no easy solution.

If we consider the role of assisted suicide and apply the social paradigm of the functionalist paradigm or conflict paradigm we can see we may add a different perspective to the argument. In the functionalist paradigm we may argue that the doctor can be seen as the gatekeeper (Haralambos and Holborn, 2000), an appropriate parallel in a situation such as this, where the majority of the power may lie within the hands of a physician, as without their help the suicide would not be assisted.

When we consider what it meant by assisted suicide then we look to an autonomous decision made by an individual that is then aided by a healthcare professional, usually a physician (Donchin, 2000).

However, the conflict perspective may be seen as the most disturbing. In this paradigm there is a basic premise that society is not based on equality and is characterised by the manner in which some sections of the community will be advantaged whilst others are disadvantaged (Haralambos and Holborn, 2000), This may be seen as a form of Marxist approach (Haralambos and Holborn, 2000).

The disturbing factor when applied to the subject of assisted suicide is that it appears to be true; when we look at a key factor in the motivation to request assisted suicide there appears to be glaring inequalities in health care delivery. This can be seen as a source of conflict within a society regarding the consequences of allowing such action. In a recent study on Oregon, where assisted suicide has been legalised there was a 60% positive response to the desire of potential suicides that they did not want to be a burden (Kaldjian, 2001). We may see that this is a symptom of society and the limitations of the help that can be afforded by the medical profession rather than a true autonomous and independent decision to end life. This we…

Yellow Roadway, Having Made Several Term Paper

Another threat is that of strike. A previous strike debilitated the company, and those costs could appear again should the Teamsters desire to make more money for their constituents. No matter how well mitigated, there is the risk of a strike shutting down operations at YR for a significant length of time.

The final threat is that of legislation. Due to high accident rates, drivers are now subject to increased regulation, which adds to the cost of doing business. This has included special hazmat training and various registrations.

Competition is a threat. Although the industry is very fragmented (ATRI, 2004), there are still several strong competitors, both in terms of companies that offer a total shipping package the way YR does, and in terms of small operators who can specialize in a certain type of product or a certain geography. These may be able to undercut YR or offer better service.

There are, however, some opportunities. YR is the largest company in the LTL market, which gives their operation a certain size and scope that few trucking companies have. This has allowed them to ponder the opportunity to expand into the overnight and next day markets. The companies in those markets use a similar hub-and-spoke system, albeit based around a combination of air and lorry transport. YR does not have the airline capacity as yet, but they have the ground network and can begin to challenge in this segment. One of the biggest appeals to this option is that this market is growing, whereas the LTL market so crucial to YR has flatlined.

Another key opportunity is to continue to expand in China. They have a partnership with one of that country’s largest conglomerates. With the booming economy in China, there is significant room for growth. This is in contrast to the U.S. market, where many of YR’s core markets have stagnated. With their foot in the door and a local partner to smooth out the logistical and political details, YR has the ability to place increased emphasis on this market, potentially achieving dominant status.

The third major opportunity for YR right now is to put increased focus on improvements in its operations. Though often not viewed as an opportunity, there are sometimes tremendous cost savings that can result from a stronger focus on internal matters. In the case of YR, they have a strong opportunity to do this because they are still in the process of integrating their two most recent purchases into the company’s operations. There is some overlap with one of those purchases, but even when there isn’t customer overlap, there are opportunities for cost-saving through operations consolidation and the development of key synergies.

Porter’s Five Forces

The five external forces that act upon a firm are: the power of buyers, the power of suppliers, the intensity of rivalry, the barriers to entry and the threat of substitution (Porter, 1979).

These five forces are analyzed in independence and help give a sense of a company’s overall position in the marketplace.

Rivalry in an industry is important because firms consistently strive for a competitive advantage over their rivals. The intensity level of this rivalry often determines the margins that a company faces, as well as direct competitive pressure in the marketplace.

The intensity of competition in the trucking industry is very high (ATRI, 2004). There are over five hundred thousand trucking companies operating in the United States, for 900,000 customers. This forces the thousands of smaller firms to compete aggressively for business. That in turn drives prices down, to the detriment of the entire industry. It has also in past driven safety standards down, and that also was to the detriment of the industry as the government has instituted a multitude of standards to improve the industry’s safety record, at significant cost to firms like YR.

As well, the industry is characterized by slow growth. The LTL segment, which is YR’s core business at present, has seen negligible growth over the past fifteen years, which means that the pie isn’t getting any bigger. Firms already hungry for business become more hungry when the entire market is zero-sum game.

Other conditions exist which render the rivalry highly intense. For example, the “product” is highly perishable. A lorry’s capacity is just that – once it is gone unused it remain so forever. When unused capacity represents revenue lost forever, firms tend to fight very competitively to fill that capacity. Another aspect is the low switching costs, a reality because of the proliferation of competition and the tradition in the industry of paying per job, rather than tying a customer to a transport company.

Additionally, the stakes are high for most of the companies in question. Many lorry-drivers are independent contractors, for which trucking is their only job. Given that the product is immediately perishable, they will inevitably be highly competitive in their quest for business.

The threat of substitutes is moderate. At present, the road-based transportation industry benefits from subsidized roadways and petrol. This keeps the cost down, but there are substitutes. Air shipping and ocean shipping are other common options, though each of these represents only a fraction of the overall shipping market. Additionally, trains are an option for some companies.

Another form of substitute is just not shipping.

This is an acute issue for overnight couriers, who are losing business directly to email, but there is a risk that firms faced with escalating fuel prices will find other ways in which to conduct business. This could result in purchasing more locally to avoid pricey long-distance shipping; or even vertically integrating. The latter seems an especially potent option for large companies that ship huge amounts to their retail outlets, but still compete on the basis of price (such as Costco or Wal-Mart).

Buyer power is low. This is especially true for a large company like YR. There are some 900,000 customers at YR alone, so the customer base for the trucking industry is incredibly fragmented the buyers are often without the ability to vertically integrate (though a handful are).

However, no buyer in particular can expect to have any significant influence over price or terms of delivery. Trucking firms may choose to compete on the basis of price, but a firm like YR will only miss customers on aggregate.

Supplier power is high. For lorries and other key equipment, suppliers have little power since YR is so large. They command the attention of those suppliers. However, they are ultimately at the mercy of two other key suppliers. YR has no control over fuel prices. They do, of course, have control over which company from which they choose to buy their diesel. In that regard, the supplier power for fuel is low. However, because the fuel companies typically operate as an oligopoly, leaving fuel prices out of the hands of even the most powerful consumers, they can be considered to be a powerful supplier, if only in aggregate. If YR’s operations were consolidated they could exercise some control by buying their own fuel, essentially operating their own petrol station. However, their operations are sufficiently scattered that they are unlikely to be able to exercise this to any significant degree.

They also are at the mercy of the Teamsters. Having become a unionized environment, YR has essentially relinquished control of its workforce to the union. The union is powerful enough to set wages standards and working conditions.

Moreover, there is a shortage of drivers in the industry at present, and this shortage is anticipated to reach crisis proportions in the coming decades as a result of a rapidly aging workforce. The combination of the two makes the power of YR’s two most important inputs very high.

The barriers to entry are low. This is evidenced by the hundreds of thousands of competitors in the marketplace today. While it is true that there are some governmental barriers, these can be easily overcome. Likewise, to enter the business requires an expensive capital asset in the lorry, but they are easy to obtain and credit is generally cheap.

That said, there are significant barriers to being on the same competitive plane as Yellow. YR has built itself over the course of several years and achieved a scale that no other player in the LTL market has. It would be extremely difficult for another player to achieve more than fraction of YR’s scale.

Value Chain Analysis

The value chain is a sequence of activities that are common to a wide range of firms. The basic principle of the value chain is to offer to the customer a level of value that exceeds the cost of the activities (Porter, 1985). The basic value chain consists of the following: Inbound logistics, operations; outbound logistics, marketing & sales, and service. Because Yellow Roadways is a logistics firm, some of those functions become blurred.…

A Nurse Themed Reflection

difficult because I was being introduced to everything. I had no idea that being a nurse meant integrating information for so many diverse fields. When I finished the week I had learned and grown so much as an individual and as a nursing student. I learned that I needed to be acquainted with various subjects in order to pull information and reference things that could help me perform my duties as a nurse. I also learned of the many new topics of interest in current healthcare and how a field like genetics could play a role in medicine and treatments. The focus of nursing is quality improvement and the first week helped me understand how to pursue quality care.

The second course week I learned how to build processes that promote quality improvement as well as safety in healthcare delivery. I had to learn how to be a leader and promote safe patient care. The focus of the week was on making ethical and critical decisions and promoting effective working relationships that I feel will prepare me for a career in nursing. Nurses are leaders in their own right. The job of a nurse requires excellent critical thinking skills and adhering to a strict ethical standard (Glazer, & Fitzpatrick, 2013). This week helped me understand this and continue to fan my interest in pursuing a golden standard of care for my future patients.

The third course week represented another hurdle. Communication is an important aspect to nursing. Without proper communication, quality in delivery of healthcare greatly diminishes. The effective use of modern communication modalities taught me that I can use several ways to communicate efficiently with others. Technological innovations have allotted nurses in the present day to communicate online through email, even a chat interface. Patients can also gain access to their medical records in some hospitals and clinics and send messages to healthcare providers. Being aware of these options helps me understand what tools I have at my disposal when it comes to communication and nursing.

The fourth week involved assessing the design, implementations, and results of approaches formulated to meet the demands and healthcare needs of patients. This meant the translation and integration of scholarship into practice. So whatever I learned that week and the weeks prior, now it was my chance to figure out how to apply that in the real world. Practical application of theory involves taking what is learned and then configuring it in a way that provides developmental insight into how to do things. My biggest takeaway was learning how to implement theory into practice.

The fifth week, I learned to develop a plan for lifelong professional as well as personal growth that also combines my professional…

Common Core and Green Eggs and Ham

Green Eggs and Ham by Dr. Seuss is a terrific book for helping young learners develop phonemic awareness and for the teacher to help them decoding and encoding strategies. At the same time, it may be used in conformity with Common Core Standards so that students meet guidelines provided by the State.

As Ouellette and Haley point out, alphabetic knowledge and vocabulary can have a positive impact on phonemic awareness (29). When students better understand the letters of the alphabet and their common pairings, they are more likely to have a sense of how sounds (phenomes) are utilized in words that are spoken. Green Eggs and Ham can be a good tool for providing many different but easy to grasp phenomes that students can differentiate as they hear the sounds and see that pictures that reinforces the ideas that the sounds should convey. Segmenting (analyzing words for their sound components and breaking them down) is also a useful way for students to better develop their “oral vocabulary and alphabetic knowledge,” which in turn assists them in boosting their phonemic awareness levels (Ouellette, Haley 29).

Reading Dr. Seuss’ Green Eggs and Ham can be an effective way to help students segment sounds and come to a better understanding of how sounds go together to produce words and how words are used to convey complete thoughts. The sentences in the book are simple, with simple subjects followed by simple predicates. As the story unfolds, there is a great deal of repetition, which is helpful for allowing students to remember sounds, hear them over and over again, and enjoy the audible experience of rhyme and repetition in reading (Dahlin, Watkins).

According to Common Core Standards, print concepts that should be demonstrated by students in 1st grade are the “understanding of the organization and basic features of print,” the ability to “follow words from left to right, top to bottom, and page by page,” the ability to “recognize that spoken words are represented in written language by specific sequences of letters,” the ability to comprehend that “words are separated by spaces in print,” and the ability to “recognize and name all upper- and lowercase letters of the alphabet,” and the ability to recognize the “distinguishing features of a sentence” — such as capitalization, punctuation, etc. (“Core Standards”). Core Standards regarding phonological awareness include recognizing and producing rhyming words (of which there are many in Green Eggs and Ham — fox, box, me, tree, house, mouse, am, Sam, ham, etc.) and blending sounds and segments of single-syllable words. They also include identifying short and long vowel sounds and being able to tell the difference between the two, practicing consonant blend sounds, and producing phonemes. This book can help the educator to touch on and reinforce all of these Standards.

For example, on the first page are the words “I am Sam,” and on the second page are the words, “Sam I am.” The third page has a the speaker of the story calling the name of the antagonist and identifying him as “Sam-I-am” and on the fourth page, Sam-I-am returns with the question, “Do you like green eggs and ham?” The teacher can read the book to the children, showing them the pages as the story unfolds, so that children understand that reading proceeds from left to right, and they can place the images of the story with the words that the teacher is speaking so that context is provided. By the last pages, the sentences become much longer and more complex and the students are challenged to follow the descriptions closely. The story uses a variety of sentences, too — such as exclamatory sentences, interrogative sentences, and declarative sentences, and students can identify each one in keeping with 1st grade Core Standards. The images can act as signposts for the students and the narrative can provide clues about who is who and what the characters want. The teacher can emphasize each word as it is written, speaking it and repeating its sounds in segments and asking students to pronounce the words too. This way, the students can practice hearing sounds and speaking sounds and receive examples of how sounds are blended to produce whole words.

Comprehension skills that can be taught with this book include identifying characters, the mood of the characters based on assertions that they make and facial expressions that are provided in the images. They can include identifying rhyming words and words that express emotion. They can also include identifying the subject of the story — as in, “What is this story about?” “What is its title?” “Who is the author?” The educator can show where information regarding the latter two questions can be found on the book and thus students can learn how to identify data in this manner.

The most outstanding skill that can be demonstrated in this book is identifying rhyme words. Green Eggs in Ham is a great rhyming book because every line has a rhyme and there are dozens of rhyme pairs that are repeated throughout the story. One exercise that the teacher could do is to identify and count the number of rhyme pairs in the story and write them on the board for the students to see. The teacher can ask questions, such as, “Which word rhymes with box?” or “Can you name some other words that rhyme with ‘me’?” This type of exercise reinforces the skill that students will need to become critical thinkers. Thus, Green Eggs and Ham can be a helpful tool for developing the students’ ability to enhance thinking skills. Another skill would be identifying words with similar consonant sounds.

Five examples of how this skill can be achieved using this book is in the identification of words that make the same sounds — rhyming words, words with consonance and words with assonance. 1) Students could count the words along with the teacher, 2) group the words on the board, 3) see how some word groups overlap (they have parts that make similar sounds with a variety of words — such as tree and train overlapping with me and rain, 4) they could think of their own words that can be added to these groups, and 5) they can write their own addition to the book and draw a picture to support their work.

All of this ties in with the 1st grade level because at this level students need to be able form more complex sounds by blending consonants. They should be able to identify long and short vowel sounds, which they can by comparing words like rain and train with ham and am. The students can also identify characteristics of a sentence, such as the first word being capitalized and different types of punctuation being used — periods, question marks and exclamation marks.

In conclusion, Green Eggs and Ham is a good book to help students in developing phonemic awareness and to assist in decoding and encoding strategies that can be taught and reinforced. It can help reinforce the basic Common Core Standards of education for 1st grade students and provide them with a pleasurable experience, reinforcing lessons that they should have learned the previous year and allowing them to build on that foundation and grown their own knowledge base and skill level.

Works Cited

“Core Standards.” Common Core. Web. 12 Nov 2016.

Dahlin, Bo; Watkins, David. “The role of repetition in the processes of memorizing and understanding.” Educational Psychology, vol. 70, no. 1 (March, 2000): 65-84.

Ouellete, Gene; Haley, Allyson. “One complicated extended family: the influence of alphabetic knowledge and vocabulary on phonemic awareness.” Journal of Research in Reading, vol. 36, no. 1 (Jan, 2013): 29-41.

Lesson Plan to Support the Concept

Aim: To develop students’ ability to identify and differentiate between long and short sounds and to identify words that rhyme or have similar consonant and vowel sounds.

Applicable NYS Learning Standard is the 1st grade phonetics standard regarding the ability to distinguish vowel and consonant…

Freud Vs. Mead a Comparative Study Term Paper

Mead and Freud

One of the most fundamental questions for the field of psychology – indeed of all human questing for knowledge – is how it is that we come to be the way that we are. What is it that makes us human? And to what extent is human nature shared and to what extent are we each unique? Two of the founding scholars of the discipline of psychology – Sigmund Freud and George Herbert Mead – both created models to explain how fundamental and arguably universal human psychic structures developed. Their models do not entirely refute each other, but they do propose distinctly different interior roadmaps of the human psyche as well as very different pathways by which core psychic structures develop.

We may begin by examining Mead’s model, which was an Interactionist one. Interactionism was one of the most important developments in psychological (as well as educational and general social scientific) theory in the 20th century. The Interactionist view insists that the “mind” and the “self” are not an a priori part of human inheritance (i.e. we are not born with them) but rather we conceive of as these faculties is developed through our experiences and are constructed through a variety of social processed. We each develop ourselves, in other words, through the daily process of interaction between ourselves and all of the other people in our social world. Our idea of the self is thus essentially an internalization of facets of all of our interactions with others.

Mead was perhaps the most eloquent defender of this model, which has profound consequences. If one accepts it, it answers in the strongest possible way that we are indeed our brothers’ (and sisters’ keepers); indeed, we are their genitors. We each exist (in social and psychological terms) because we have incorporated (and perhaps integrated) the ways that others see us (Mead, 1967, pp. 21-7).

For the Interactionist, each of us is who we are because we develop ourselves through the process of interaction with other people. But not all interactions are equally important to the development of self. Rather, those that occur in intimate, personal communication with others are the most influential. These relationships include familial ones and those with intimate friends – but for the child they also include relationships with teachers and other educators.

The self, or self-concept, as developed by Mead and others, is thus essentially an internalization of aspects of an interpersonal or social process with an emphasis on interactions with certain specific individuals. We are created out of the cloth of how other persons conceive us and this self-concept (while constantly fluctuating and uncertain) nevertheless functions as a guide in social behavior. This includes the social behavior of learning, for we learn not as isolated individuals but within the context of a specific culture and society and historical moment (Mead, 1964, pp. 81-6).

Interactionists argue that we each tend to act in order to preserve the existing or desired image of our self as reflected back as us by others. For the schoolchild, this means that we see ourselves in terms of how our teachers see us: Children come to see themselves as their teachers do. Teachers who are able to value the potential and contributions of each child are thus able to help mold children (through their interactions) into people who value their own ability to learn.

Freud’s model of how the most fundamental psychic structures are formed is a more internalized one. He believed that the basic structures of a person’s psyche develop very early on and while they arise in part in response to other people, these other people are only those in the family unit. The basic psychic structures were, for Freud, already in place before a child was old enough to have substantial interactions with other people of the type that Mead emphasized. Moreover, there is a greater emphasis in Freud’s work on the importance of universal (and therefore necessarily innate) characteristics of cognition and personality (Fredu, 1989, lecture 16, 18).

Freud’s basic model of the psyche has become so much a part of the common culture that we no longer necessarily even recognize elements of it as psychoanalytical theory or understand how radical Freud’s ideas were when he proposed them. Thus, although we hear the words dozens of times a day, it will perhaps be useful to take the time here to give a clear definition of the term ego, since its definition has grown a bit fuzzy through use since Sigmund Freud coined it.

The word ego is simply Latin word for “I” and is equivalent to the experience that we all have of a “self” or a sense of agency within us. The ego is the connected sense of self or personality that we carry with us across time and space. The ego, this sense of self, is the part of our human psyche that plans and then later remembers, that evaluates and responds to elements of both our physical and social environments.

The idea of the ego (as it is used in Freudian psychoanalytic theory) cannot be fully understood on its own, however, because Freud’s model is a synthetic one, one in which different parts of the psyche work with and are in some significant measure defined by each other. The ego may be understood as the part of the human psyche that provides each one of us with a sense of continuity in our lives and a sense of coherency in our responses and understandings – both across time and from one type of situation to another (Freud, 1965, lecture 31).

The ego, as a sense of self, is related to our sense of our own bodies as well as our understanding of and awareness of our own personality, but is not exactly the same as either of these. but, like both body and personality, the ego changes over the lifespan, especially in reaction to dramatic changes in a person’s life. (it may be seen from this that while Freud was most certainly more interested in structure than in process, the ideas of structure and process when applied to the human psyche are not diametrically opposed to each other but are more like different ends of a continuum. While this model of the ways in which the psyche is structured and how these various substructures interact with each other was developed by her father, it is also integral to Anna Freud’s work as well.)

In addition to the ego, Freud believed that there were two other fundamentally important parts that make up the human psyche: The id and the superego. The id can be seen to be the “oldest” of the three, both in terms of an individual’s development as well as (it is generally surmised) in terms of the evolution of the human species. The id is home to those elements of the human psyche that we sometimes consider to be primitive but more properly might call “ancient” – ideas and attitudes about sex, death and aggression. The id – which is simply the Latin word for “it” – is childlike in many ways, not understanding or attending to the passage of time, chaotic, not governed by rational thought processes or logic. The id prompts us to seek out pleasure – preferably immediate pleasure – although we are unaware of these promptings given that it works entirely on the subconscious level (Freud, 1965, lecture 26, 27).

Like the terms “ego” and “superego,” the term “defense mechanism” has become so much a part of our normalized daily discourse about the dynamics of the human psyche that we may perhaps fail to consider its more technical definition. For Freud, a defense mechanism was any one of several different unconscious processes that work to provide the…

What Is Your Dream JobEssay


My dream job is in health care management. I am pursuing this right now because I feel that it meets all of my criteria for a dream job. The first thing that I want a job for is security, and healthcare management offers me that. According to the Occupational Outlook Handbook, healthcare management pays well, and the growth rate is much faster than average. If there is rising demand, and the field is relatively specialized, that means I will have considerable freedom over my future with this job. The median pay in 2012 was $88,580 per year, and the growth rate is 23% over the next decade, with an expected 73,300 new jobs (BLS, 2015). With that in mind, I feel that this is a career that provides a lot of security for me going forward.

But the dream job is not just about security. I want to do something that I love. I want a job that I look forward to everyday. Security is sort of a baseline thing that has to be there, but I also know that if I hate my work, my life will be worse off for that. Healthcare is an industry that has deep value to me. It is an industry that is about helping people, and that is what drew me to healthcare in the first place. There are many places to make money, but doing it while helping people in their hour of need is something that makes me feel good, and I want to be a part of that. So I have a lot of intrinsic motivation with respect to health care, and want to participate in the industry in a way that allows me to meet my other needs as well.

It is probably worth mentioning that money and security are only some of what I want. I see my dream job as pursuing whatever I want, and there’s really only one way that I can do that. If I have a career that allows me the flexibility to chart my life’s course, that is the sort of job that I am looking for. I feel that if I have the financial flexibility, and the ability to live anywhere that I want, I will be able to carve a much better path for myself than by any other means. You have to work in this life, so…

Service Operations Management Report Mccarran Term Paper

While this paper focuses on process-centric improvements to McCarran, the research completed for this paper highlights the critical need for an all-encompassing IT architecture that allows for data to support both processes as thoroughly as possible.

Figure 3: Combining the Check-in and retailing processes for greater efficiency

Luggage and Baggage Process Improvements

Another major area of process improvement McCarran needed to focus on was luggage and baggage handling. The airport had been losing between 10% to 30% of all bags, leading to high levels of customer dissatisfaction and many manual processes attempting to compensate for the confusion around this broken process. Relying on Radio Frequency Identification Devices (RFID) McCarran piloted several programs for baggage tagging, management and retrieval using the RFID standard. In the retail industry, Wal-Mart has been a pioneer in establishing higher levels of performance in logistics and supply chain performance using RFID, and McCarran’s many efforts have lead to best practices for the U.S. being defined by their efforts. Figure 4 shows a comparable business case McCarran’s management used for defining the ROI of implementing RFID systems with 52% of bags tagged as of January 2007 and read rates of 99%. These results combine for best practices in the context of RFID being used to overcome the queuing problems McCarran has with freight and luggage.

Figure 4: RFID Analysis Based on Queuing Theory

Using EOQ Modeling theory combining RFID illustrate the implications of queuing optimization on orthogonally-defined processes including luggage and freight management. McCarran’s approach to RFID pilots and implementation has been very rapid due to the reliance on queuing approaches as defined by Lui and Wang. RFID’s implementation at McCarran would have failed if it had not been for taking a more process-centric view of queuing and EOQ strategy definition relating to both freight and luggage. The results of re-defining processes first has been an impressive 30% reduction in lost luggage and a more efficient luggage and freight handling process measured by a reduction in cost per bag handled.

Service-oriented Architectures Synchronize Service

Airports are starting to see the positive ROIs possible due to tight integration of systems across functional boundaries. Without strong integration built on an agile and intelligent IT platform, no service provider within an airport can hope to survive in the turbulent, unpredictable, and accelerating competitive environments that typify airport operations today.

What’s needed is an agile IT architecture that can align on the core supplier, buyer, and customer-facing processes and re-align not only IT resources, but serve as a catalyst for capturing knowledge and repurposing it throughout an airport services operation enterprise. Clearly there is a strong need for SOAs as a result of these dynamics.

What makes SOA highly differentiated as an IT strategy is the potential it provides to turn what had been exclusively a cost center into a business center, where P can be determined by the contribution of information to decisions. To look at SOA as purely a cost reduction strategy is short-sighted, myopic, and will lead many manufacturing companies to mistakenly move towards database and master records consolidation in the hopes SOA can answer the shortfall. SOA is clearly not a cost reduction strategy, yet the business benefits it provides of making manufacturing more attuned to customers and suppliers, in short becoming more attuned to its own value chain, are where the true ROI of SOA is today according to Study in Contrasts (2006).

The bottom line is that SOA delivers competitive advantages by synchronizing supply chains, service organizations and service functions to better align with customer demands. SOA is a new competitive weapon that services organizations are discovering that uses information assets not as historical mile markers, but as the fuel to propel their companies into more precisely aligned strategies for sensing and responding to demand. SOAs are serving also as the foundation for furthering airport operations by also including a series of analytical applications for tracking and reporting back key performance indicator’s trending over time. The use of these indicators in the form of a scorecard is also critical to best practices in services re-definition.


The use of queuing specifically and the broader field of insights from operations management provide the following conclusions relating to the performance of McCarran International Airport:

The consolidation of businesses processes, when governed by queuing strategies as defined by Joustra & Dijik, is having significant impact on the overall performance of McCarran’s financial and operational efficiencies.

This is leading to the growth of higher per passenger spending in the airport.

Leading the U.S. with their approach to Common User Self-Service (CUSS) and resulting integration of real-time Operations Management Systems to enable queuing reduction and best practices, McCarran’s approach to pushing check-in points to hotels and the Convention Center is alleviating queues in the airport by 30% or more.

RFID-based initiatives to interject greater intelligence into the logistics of freight and baggage are also leading to significant gains in efficiency.


McCarran’s approach to pursuing queuing and operations management best practices across customer services areas needs to be first governed by Business Impact and their relative contribution to strategic objectives on the one hand and the technological readiness of McCarran’s management and staffs to permanently make the change on the other. The following table plots the priorities for change across a grid of Business Impact vs. technology Readiness, showing the relative rankings of RFID< CUSS, Customer Data Management (CDM), and Open Source Initiatives.

The top recommendations are to continually apply queuing theory in conjunction with RFID to gain the greatest potential business impact, relying primarily on queuing methodologies to further increase performance. The use of CDM-based approaches and the build-out of a broader single version of the truth in terms of Customer Data Management need to be the second priority, followed by the growth of CUSS for PDAs and online check-in. It is imperative that the continued synchronization of services at McCarran be built on an IT infrastructure that can be agile enough to respond to the specific needs of services organizations’ growth due to advances in queuing theories and demands of customers on the one hand, and the need for creating a sustainable analytics, reporting and CDM-based infrastructure on the other.

Las Vegas Chamber of Commerce and Visitor’s Center Profiles, 2006.

Las Vegas Chamber of Commerce Survey of Airport Satisfaction, 2005

IATA (2006)- Common User Self-Service (CUSS)

Odoni (2004) – Airside Congestion Lecture. T. Wilson Professor Aeronautics and Astronautics Civil and Environmental Engineering Massachusetts Institute of Technology From Dr. Odoni’s lecture, Accessed from the Internet on January 12, 2007:

Gatersleben and Simon W. van der Weij (1999) – ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION OF PASSENGER FLOWS IN AN AIRPORT TERMINAL Proceedings of the 1999 Winter Simulation Conference P.A. Farrington, H.B. Nembhard, D.T. Sturrock, and G.W. Evans, eds.

Joustra & Dijik (2001) – Paul E. Joustra and Nico M. Van Dijk. SIMULATION OF CHECK-IN AT AIRPORTS. Presented Proceedings of the 2001 Winter Simulation Conference B.A. Peters, J.S. Smith, D.J. Medeiros, and M.W. Rohrer, eds.

Liu and Wang (2006) – Integrated RFID Data Modeling: An Approach for Querying Physical Objects in Pervasive Computing IBM Silicon Valley Lab and Siemens Corporate Research Princeton, NJ, USA CIKM’06, November 5-11, 2006, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Study in Contrasts (2006) – A Study in Contrasts: The Evolving SOA Strategies of IBM And Microsoft Thursday, October 05, 2006: Dennis Gaughan. AMR Research. Article.

Volunteering in the Community Essay

Community Service

I feel that it is important for young people to engage in community service. It is important to establish at an early age that you are part of a larger community. One of the things that happens, especially in high school, is that you become quite focused on yourself. Your world is fairly small, mostly just a small geographic area, your friends and family. Community service broadens a young person’s world, giving them experiences that they otherwise would not have.

In the course of community service, you see a lot of things. I volunteered at a nursing home, where you basically are assigned one person with whom to meet weekly and talk to. I was assigned a younger person with a mental disability who was unable to take care of himself, a low functioning person. This experience was exceptionally eye-opening. You see the people working there and learn things about the working world. You learn about compassion, and how lucky you are to have your health. You learn that life is shorter than you think. In essence, this experience really gave me a lot of perspective.

I think the ability to get out of your comfort zone, and to gain perspective about things is one of the most valuable aspects of community service, especially with respect to your career. First, you learn some basic things about professionalism, showing up on time, putting in a shift, and things like that. I had some community service where we were re-habilitating a natural area, cleaning about garbage, planting, taking out invasive species. This was probably the hardest work I’ve done but it really felt great to know that I made a contribution to making my community better. This is exactly the sort of thing all young people should do, because building that sense of community, and making a contribution instead of just being focused on yourself is pretty powerful. Plus, employers look at something like that and they know that you will work to make their organizations better.

I think it would be a good service to help people understand cyber risks. I have had to do this with my younger siblings, and with my parents, and grandparents. . My parents are okay, but there are always things that people do not realize about cyber security. People are genuinely worried about hacking, but they do not understand simple things like having complicated passwords. So there is a lot of value that this is a value service that can be performed, to help all sorts of people in the community.

There are many aspects to cybersecurity as well. I’ve talked to people who think it’s just about hacking, but there’s phishing to think about.. There is cyberbullying as well.. So much of what we do is online, and so few people really understand the risks, even basic things. I feel that this is knowledge that I have, so this is knowledge that I can give. Helping people will make the community a…