Science, Society and Environment Application of FOX’s Essay

Science, Society and Environment

Application of Fox’s continuum values and their implications based on relationship between nature and society

Science, society, and environment are three components of a person’s life. No matter what part of the world an individual lives in, he or she will experience science, have a certain environment and a society all around him. These three components are also embedded within an individual. An individual forms society along with other individuals while simultaneously creating an environment by combining the society with nature.

Nature and Society

It wouldn’t be wrong to state that human society contrasts nature. In order for a human society to flourish and develop, nature has to be exploited. Exploitation of nature means benefits to human society in form of natural and other resources that are solely dependent on Mother Nature. While the two entities are largely at contrast, it is very important for the society to behave as a part of nature for its survival.

To develop a better understanding of nature and society, it is important to understand both nature and society individually. Nature does not only comprise of the world that we live in, it comprises of the whole universe. There are parts of nature that are exposed to us and then there are other parts of nature that still remain a secret. Nature that has been exposed about is referred to as nature that is known to us and nature that has not been exposed yet is nature that is unknown to us (Nan-Sheng & Guangwu, 2012). Another category is of nature that is somewhat known to us such as starts, constellations etc. Their existence is observed but details remain undisclosed. Nature that is known to us is further divided into three parts that are:

Mother Nature that refers to nature that has been discovered by man but existed naturally such as moon, mountains, etc. (Nan-Sheng & Guangwu, 2012).

Humanized Nature that refers to nature that is being exploited by man for his benefits such as agricultural products, orchards etc. (Nan-Sheng & Guangwu, 2012).

Last but not the least Man-Made Nature, this can be referred to as artificial nature, something that is made from components of nature but did not exist naturally such as vehicles, machinery etc. (Nan-Sheng & Guangwu, 2012).

It is now important to develop a basic understanding of society as well. Society is also divided into three forms that are:

Productive forces — Forces that exploit nature (Nan-Sheng & Guangwu, 2012).

Productive relations — Intermediary between the productive forces and the super structure (Nan-Sheng & Guangwu, 2012)

Super structure — Structure that forms an overall human society (Nan-Sheng & Guangwu, 2012).

Society is inherently dependent upon nature for its survival. However it would not be wrong to state that the relationship is two-fold due to the fact that although society is continuously exploiting nature by conquering it for its survival and benefits, it is continuously influenced by nature during the process of development. Without nature, the society could not progress or even form due and without society mankind’s survival will be next to impossible. Society is also capable of damaging nature that, in the long run, will be fatal for the society itself.

Relationship between nature and society is prevalent since the beginning of life. It started with mankind forming groups to hunt for food and progressed into what we call today as civilization. It would be foolish to single out any of these entities as both of them are interdependent.

Identifying an Environmental Issue in Australia

Australia is a beautiful country but unfortunately suffers from a vast range of environmental problems. However, one of the major environmental issues that Australia is currently facing is that of deforestation. The chosen environmental issue is deforestation because deforestation not only causes a decrease in the forests but also has a negative impact on the water. It is important to note here that Australia is already suffering from a lot of water security problems. An additional issue related to deforestation is that a forest once cut leaves the soil infertile. Australian soil rarely has the ability to re-grow.

To assess the size of the impact that deforestation has caused in Australia, it is important to know that more than 7% of Australia’s agricultural land has been negatively affected by deforestation.

Applying Fox’s Continuum to the Environmental Issue

Basically Fox’s continuum is a continuum that maps environmental issues in accordance with what various kinds of environment philosophies. Environment philosophies have been derived to develop a better understanding of what environment actually is, how it affects our society and how it affects nature. These philosophies also consider the interlinked relationship between society, nature and the environment as discussed earlier in the paper. To know how the fox’s continuum will be applied to the environmental issue of deforestation, it is important to understand all the philosophies described and the continuum and to understand the continuum as a whole. The figure of the continuum is drawn below.

Instrumentalism

Manage

rialism

Intrinsic Rights

Deep Ecology

So based on Fox’s continuum, there are four environmental philosophies that are discussed below in detail.

Instrumentalism

Instrumentalism is an environmental philosophy that is anthropocentric i.e. more human centered. This philosophy has its strong beliefs in the importance of human beings and grants them the right to have unrestricted access to the resources available. The philosophy also stresses upon the fact that nature is robust but on the other hand it considers human beings as the king of all species and the rest as subordinates.

Managerialism

This philosophy basically stresses upon the complexity of nature and the fact that even though resources are there to be exploited, they must be managed and used in a way to provide maximum yield or output for the human beings while avoiding the threat of scarcity of resources. It would not be wrong to state that this philosophy is in line with the management principles of business. It is also important to note here that this philosophy is also human centered / anthropocentric philosophy.

Intrinsic Rights

While moving towards this philosophy, we will find that the focus has now been shifted to nature. This philosophy is eco-centric or nature centered philosophy. Although it doesn’t deny the importance of human beings, it focuses on the fact that human beings are a part of nature and other beings such as animals and plants etc. also have due importance for the human beings in order to sustain the human survival. As mentioned earlier in the paper, if a society of human beings has to survive it has to adjust to the nature. Human beings exist in natural systems that work independently of their needs. Therefore, even though nature is exploitable for human interest it is important for humans to alter themselves according to the natural systems, because the fact remains; only the fittest will survive.

Deep Ecology

This philosophy is the extreme of eco-centrism and nature centrism. It can also be referred to as green spirituality because the philosophy stresses upon the transformation of our consciousness to sustain and identify with the nature. The philosophy highlights a hidden fact that if human beings are violent to nature, they are actually being violent to themselves due to the reason that nature is actually acting as a system that protects them and provides them with resources to help them survive. The philosophy stresses upon the need to respect nature due to its importance in human lives.

To apply the continuum to deforestation, we have to consider the timeline. Deforestation taking place highlights the human centered environmental philosophy, instrumentalism. Due to need of land or other personal needs, people start cutting forests regardless of the after effects. The implications of this will be discussed later in the paper. Solution to deforestation being sought proves that we are advancing towards the eco-centric philosophies. However, it’s not a jump, the first step was moving towards Managerialism and then to Intrinsic Rights and finally to the Deep Ecology. The environmental issue hasn’t completely reached the deep ecology yet.

Implications of Fox’s Continuum of Values

The implications of Fox’s Continuum values are discussed in detail for each philosophy below.

Instrumentalism

Due to instrumentalism prevailing in the minds of the Australian citizens, deforestation took place due to which the Australian agricultural land and water resources suffered greatly. The people believed in exploitation of nature or nature’s resources regardless of the fact that in doing so their lives will be affected negatively in the long run and their homeland will be severely destroyed.

Managerialism

The age of realization, when people began realizing that deforestation will ultimately lead to lack of natural resources is when the people started believing in the environmental philosophy of Managerialism. They still believed in exploitation of resources for their personal benefits but they also believe in management of exploitation of the resources so that they can use the resources for their benefits for a longer period of time.

Intrinsic Rights

The age of…

Disaster Preparedness Plan Term Paper

Disaster Preparedness Plan:

Georgia has been an area threatened by some of form of natural disaster that has a huge negative impact on the well-being of its residents and the personnel and financial resources of the emergency response agencies. The most common natural disaster that occurs in this area is tornadoes that have terrorized both the rural and urban areas while making everyone in danger of their perils. In the recent years, Georgia experienced deadly tornadoes that caused harm, damages, and deaths in approximately 15 counties within the state. Give the nature of these tragedies, residents of this state need to be prepared and planned on how to respond to such emergencies.

Tornadoes in Georgia:

Tornadoes are regarded as nature’s most violent storms since they can generate wind speeds of over 250 mph and appear from nowhere with little warning (“March Marks Start of Active Tornado,” n.d.). These natural disasters are the most common one in Georgia as they have continued to occur and cause damages for a long period of time across the state. In the most recent incident, tornadoes terrorized the state’s rural and urban areas resulting in three deaths and numerous damages. The major reason for the vulnerability to this disaster by anyone and the huge damages in attributed to their occurrence from nowhere and without warning.

In addition to other tragedies, tornadoes clearly demonstrate the need for Georgians to be prepared, particularly because of their negative impacts. The effects of tornadoes in Georgia can be mitigated through being prepared to act quickly through an established plan and practicing where and how to take shelter. Actually, the common occurrence of these tragedies have resulted in the establishment of various emergency response agencies like GEMA Ready, which encourages residents to prepare, plan, and stay up-to-date regarding tornado threats.

Hazard Risk Assessment:

According to reports on the number of tornadoes that occur annually, Georgia is normally ranked among the leading 15 states. The state is actually ranked as the 13th state in the United States with more tornadoes annually with an estimated average of 20 tornadoes. While there are reported tornadoes across the state in every month, most incidents take place between March and May as well as October to November due to late fall cold fronts (“Georgia Emergency Operations Plan,” 2010).

Despite of the numerous of tornadoes in Georgia annually, the state rarely experiences the most devastating tornadoes i.e. EF-4 and EF-5 that are common in the Midwest. However, some of these devastating tornadoes have occurred in Georgia in the recent past. For instance, the state experienced twenty tornadoes in a single day in May 2008, with many of them ranging between EF-0 and EF-4 storms. These storms were preceded by an EF-2 tornado that happened two months earlier in Atlanta resulting in the death of one resident and damages worth millions of dollars.

Since this state has always experienced various tornadoes in the recent past, the likelihood of such tragedies to occur in Georgia have increased. The likelihood of tornadoes to occur in Georgia has resulted in the period between March and May as well as October and November to be known as tornado seasons. In the past 50 years, Georgia has experienced about 1,220 tornadoes including 33 that occurred in the year 2000.

While these tragedies can happen at any time during the day and in any month of the year, they usually take place between 3:00 PM and 9:00 PM during the tornado seasons. These storms tend to typically move from southwest to northeast at an estimated speed of 30 mph though they can move dangerously in any direction. As the storm fronts from tornadoes can advance quickly across the state, the risk of this tragedy is high in all counties in Georgia including those with minimal number of historical tornado events.

In the recent years, advances in technology have increasingly enhanced the forecasting and warning time of tornado like the Doppler radar. However, these storms have continued to occur in Georgia because of the terrain in many parts of this state that makes it difficult to recognize a developing tornado and the limitations of the radar. Consequently, trained amateur radio operators are very important to the National Weather Service in Georgia for the identification of developing tornadoes (“Defining the Need,” 2002).

As previously mentioned, the likely occurrence of a tornado has devastating effects on the well-being of residents and the personnel and financial resources of response agencies and teams. Some of the major potential impacts of these storms include significant loss of life, destruction of property and infrastructure, need for temporary housing, increased need for health care services and systems, and increased security demands.

Disaster Plan for a Tornado:

With the increase in the occurrence of tornadoes in Georgia, families and businesses in this area need to prepare, plan, and stay informed regarding such tragedies. There is need for a tornado-specific plan to help in mitigating the effects of such tragedies. The disaster preparedness plan should include the directives and concepts of homeland security as well as the standards of the Incident Command System and National Incident Management System. The plan has three major areas i.e. preparation, planning to take shelter, and communications to the public about tornado threats.

First, it’s important to learn about the likelihood and risk of tornadoes in Georgia from the local emergency management office and the office of National Weather Service. The process will also help in the familiarization with the various terms that are used to refer to a tornado risk or hazard. For instance, a tornado watch refers to a likely tornado in the area whereas a tornado warning is used in reference to a tornado that has been identified and requires people to take shelter immediately.

The preparation process for a tornado also involves determining beforehand the place to shelter in case of a tornado warning. In Georgia, some of the most suitable places to shelter are storm cellars or basements because they offer the best protection. It’s important for families and businesses to consider having reinforcement to their tornado safe place since it adds more protection from the devastating effects of storms. These efforts will be conducted through the guidelines provided by the Federal Emergency Management Agency on building a tornado safe room.

Moreover, the preparation for a tornado in Georgia also includes the proper programming of NOAA Weather Radios and arranging a ready kit of supplies that may be necessary after a tragedy. Through its tone-alert feature for watches and warnings, the NOAA Weather Radio will be used as a community warning system. The communities will be educated regarding the process with which the watches and warnings are issued, particularly through county or parish names. Since many communities in Georgia have siren systems, they will be taught and encouraged to differentiate between the siren’s warnings for tornado watch and tornado warning (“Tornadoes: Being Prepared,” 2007).

Conducting periodic tornado drills will also be an important part of disaster preparedness to ensure that the residents remember what to do in case of an approaching tornado. Families will be encouraged to practice going to a designated safe place in response to the likelihood of a tragedy. This process is critical because it makes the suitable response a reaction that requires minimal thinking time during an actual tragedy situation.

After the preparation stage, the next phase in disaster preparedness is to plan to take shelter in the event of a tornado tragedy. The residents are advised to take shelter immediately after they see a funnel cloud or after a tornado warning. In this case, underground shelter is the most suitable place though people can go to an interior room on the lowest possible floor if the underground shelter is unavailable. A building with a strong foundation is also…

Environment Is Something All People and All

Environment is something all people and all cultures share. Nature knows no international boundaries or religions. On the contrary, nature is the universal constant binding people together. A healthy relationship with the environment can promote intercultural dialogue and cross-cultural communication because of the universal need for and appreciation of nature. Nature is “healing,” and it impacts human well-being (University of Minnesota). Although individuals and societies will have different attitudes, beliefs, and goals related to environmental stewardship, it is possible to discover shared values and work towards a new vision for the future.

Individuals and communities have responsibilities to protect, serve, and conserve the environment. As individuals change their attitudes toward nature, each person can work towards shifting social norms related to consumerism, materialism, and overconsumption. Likewise, individuals can alter their relationship with nature by promoting appreciation and affection for the beauty in all things. As the Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops points out, “It will then be easier for us to look at nature with new eyes. Instead of considering it primarily as a resource to be exploited, we will be more inclined to admire its beauty and grandeur,” (4).

It is also important to recognize the need for human beings to live in harmony with each other, and to discover the means by which to promote the physical, social, and economic well-being of all people. Developing new technologies that make resource management more efficient is one way of promoting harmony. Rather than compete over natural resources, societies can collaborate on the best use of those resources for the benefit of all people. Viewing natural resources as shared gifts, rather than as possessions or commodities to profit from, people can develop a new and more harmonious relationship with the environment. The new relationship with the environment respects non-human entities as well as human beings. It is not necessary to do away with material comforts to promote a healthy relationship with nature, either. In fact, a more harmonious relationship with nature will lead to developments of more efficient and high quality products and technologies.

A new relationship with the environment is an ethical and moral imperative (Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops). Far from being the ethic of one culture, environmental stewardship is an ethic entrusted to every single human being. No person can live without nature’s bounty, such as water and food. Therefore, each person is already engaged in a relationship…

Understanding the Role of APQC in Enhancing Quality Term Paper

American Productivity and Quality Center: History And Functions

This American body has the task of helping companies and individuals to make choices regarding improvements in productivity and quality of products and services. This body has branches all over the world, which help it operate globally. The need to raise awareness about the level of quality of goods and services from industries has been rising in the recent past. This informed the formation of this global body. In every situation regarding production and management, high levels of quality and productivity are important (Brocke, and Rosemann 169).

The American Productivity and Quality Center was started in the year 1977 in the wake of the need for corporate entities to come up with the best standards of practices to be used. This body serves over 750 out of the total 1000 Fortune Global companies. The need arose when these companies showed interest in demanding to win the global appeal. In these companies, the need to have a growing appeal was going to make them stand a chance to compete successfully. Over time, the body has moved to recruit one company after the other in the global arena. At the initial stages of the formation, the body was interested in the quality of the products and services. Improvements have so far been added that made the body attain much more targets than before. In this new regime, an all round approach to the growth of the companies was considered (Weilkiens, Weiss, and Grass 127).

Current application

The current application of the services offered by the company touch on bringing out the best in the companies that it serves. Best practices in companies require that perfection be attained whenever an assessment is done. For instance, whenever there is a chance to assess the companies, emphasis is laid on how the company can attain its specific objectives. In this assessment, all the spheres of the company management are considered for evaluation. For instance, the management, operations, finance, and the human resource departments are all evaluated. The body has set up assessment metrics that are useful in determining how the companies attain their results. In each of the metrics in place, the companies have had a chance to highlight their abilities. The assessment is done in a procedural manner that respects the chronology of events that take place (Brocke, and Rosemann 170).

Benefits

Various benefits accompany the…

Stakeholder Assessment of Legislation to Place Fluoride in Water Essay

Policy

Assessment of a Fluoridation Policy from the Perspective of Different Stakeholders

When examining the different potential; perspectives of different stakeholders, it is important to note that many of the concerns and issues are not mutually exclusive to the different stakeholders and different perspectives. The following matrix presents some of the potential views of different stakeholders from different perspectives.

Stakeholders:

Possible perspectives held by these stakeholders:

Conservative

Liberal

Legal

Religious

Ethical

Cultural

Societal

Economic

Legislators

Legislation is needed to enforce what has been a voluntary measure in the past, as many communities have not yet adopted the practice. The benefits outweigh the cost, and it is cost effective to add fluoride to the water; saving between $8 and $49 for each $1 spent (CDC, 2013).

Individual freedoms should be protected; placing fluoride in the water forces all those who use the water to consume the fluoride, without any choice or autonomy, and possibly without their knowledge.

There may be concern for the potential of a legal challenge to legislation forcing fluoridation from the opponents. Other legislation, such as Obamacare has faced legal challenges. There may be concerns that it may be seen as unconstitutional under the 14th amendment, undermining personal liberty in terms of freedom of choice over bodily health and care (Strong, 1967). However, this is not complete liberty and reasonable regulation is allowed (Strong, 1967)

The act may be seen as breaching the first amendment where there is no law to be passed which breaches the free exercise of religion. Some religions believe that there should not be interference, for example the Christian Science Church, where there is meant to be sole reliance on God for health (Strong, 1967). Claims for this have failed in the past but it does not prevent the potential belief by some in the legislature.

It is ethical to impose a measure that will provide a greater benefit than the associated cost, and fluoridation will create significant benefits.

Legislators to pass bills they believe their electorate will support, if they pass unpopular legislation they are unlikely to be elected in the following terms. Legislators must believe it is in the benefits of their electorate and has sufficient support to pass the bill, or that if it is not popular, it will not be sufficiently unpopular to result in failure to be re-elected.

Society needs to be protected form itself, especially as the state…

Cocaine and Crack: Proletariat Hunger Term Paper

There is no valuable sustenance in crack or cocaine, and is used mainly as a recreational drug by many. This, in some ways, leaves the inner cities and crime and moves to the wealthier middle and upper middle classes who use the cocaine and not the crack version for recreation. This is the society of Jay McInerney’s seminal 1980s fictional tale of New York 20-something lives, “Bright Lights, Big City.”

Cocaine users have and have had their “scene” for quite some time, and for the, the currency is still money, rather than the drug itself. That is how recreational cocaine users differ from the crime-influenced hunger satisfier described in the proletariat hunger killer definition. There is not the sense of urgent necessity outside of the biological influence of the drug itself, of course.

In other words, recreational cocaine users may indeed get addicted and the drug may indeed replace their hunger, but it is from the biological nature of the drug. In the proletariat hunger killers model, the users get addicted to the lifestyle bore than the biological and chemical reactions implicit in taking cocaine or crack for recreational uses and in social settings.

In the proletariat hunger killers model, the drugs physically replace food. Take the rapper Ol’ Dirty Bastard, for instance. Having grown up in the projects in Staten Island, he was very exposed to crack use, both as a sustenance drug and as a currency. However, after reaching financial and career success, one would assume that – if he continued to use cocaine or crack – would move towards the genussmittels model instead, since he was successfully removed himself from crime-ridden streets.

But we find that even as a 35-year-old millionaire, Ol’ Dirty Bastard overdosed and died with crack in his system, while he was at work in the studio. This is clear proof that the genussmittels model does not necessary apply: Those who are exposed to crack or cocaine in the proletariat hunger killers form never are able to truly abandon that path. They treat the drugs as food: Note that the rapper went to work while on the drugs, as one would go to work after eating breakfast.

That is why the proletariat hunger killers model is more powerful, and perhaps more persuasive and dangerous: The drugs effectively replace food, making other sustenance factors moot and rendering other interests unimportant. The drug is the only goal, and the drug is the only currency. It is all-consuming. All this, of course, follows the biological and chemical harm that the drugs do, of course.

In the end, that is why the proletariat hunger killers model is more useful: More people in crime-infested areas are affected by cocaine and crack as life substitutes. They lose interest in all else, whether family, job or friends, and they focus only the drug. In fact, they care not about the recreational aspect, as per the genussmittels model either: The highs garnered from the drug take a backseat to the fuel the drugs act as for the livelihood of the users.

That is probably the closest analogy under the proletariat hunger killers model: Cocaine and crack are fuel, not really consumed for the quality, but simply because it is needed to go on, to survive. In that respect, the drugs are entirely like food, and they do replace sustenance.

The genussmittels model explains only the usage for those users who have always been in higher socio-economic classes, and then again, not all of them. It is quite easy for a genussmittels user to turn into a proletariat hunger killers user, but the opposite is quite impossible. Once cocaine replaces food, there is no going back, if usage is to continue. However, a user can easily go from using cocaine for recreational purposes for the particular highs it generates, to using it uncontrollably for fuel, or food.

Policy should focus, therefore, first on the proletariat hunger killers model, to nip drug use in its most harmful bud.

Bibliography

Canadian Drug Addiction Information:

http://www.drugaddiction.ca/EnglishPage/Drug_addiction_Impact.htm

Cocaine.org’s Web page:

www.cocaine.org

National Institutes of Health:

http://www.nida.nih.gov/Infofax/cocaine.html

Muscles Involved in the Backhand Action of the Tennis Shot Essay

Tennis

The number of movements carried out in any sport is known as technique. This technique is the one that is behind a backhand stroke or a forehand stroke. This technique can go for all strokes, swings and basically all the movements involved in sports. This technique is a result of the different forces, whether they are external or internal, acting on the body of the player (Bahamonde, 1992). In order to achieve well though and strategic shots, both coaches and the players need to have a sound idea of this technique.

Before we get into explaining the whole planning and order of events behind a backhand stroke, it should be cleared out that smart strokes are never copied. It should be known that most of the great shots come out because of the physical qualities of the player and not his or her technique. (Hays, 1993) This statement and great observation itself highlights the importance of being toned out and having good muscles in order to work them and make a successful shot.

A backhand stroke can either be one handed or two handed. One hand backhand strokes were common practice. Just recently, there has been the advent of a two handed stroke as well that is hit from a closed stance. Till now, there are no studies done or no form of research that shows that one hand back hand stroke is better than two handed stroke. If both the strokes are carried out in the best possible way and done so with good technique, they can produce required results. (Groppel, 1992) According to a study done, it was shown that there were no relevant differences were found in the muscles used both the strokes. However, there was increased use of pronator teres muscle while carrying out the two handed backhand stroke. (Giangarra et al., 1993)

To brief it all up, to have a good one handed back stroke, there should be good elbow joint rotation so that adequate velocity is made. EMG studies have revealed that during a one hand back stroke there has been activity of the triceps, supra spinatus, infraspinatus, and middle deltoid during the acceleration phase. (Morris et al., 1989) Following the acceleration phase comes the backswing phase. This phase involves the trunk muscle to make the adequate momentum and cancelation. The involvement of the shoulder and the trunk muscles adds on a significant amount of force. If we get into the details of the movement, tennis is a complex sport that is made up of intricate movements. All these movements result from the strategic involvement of joints and muscles of the body.

Definition of terms

Flexion: In case of the arm, this is basically the movement of the arm towards the upper arm. This occurs in the sagital plane.

Extension: This means straightening out a joint and it normal occurs in a posterior direction.

Abduction: This is the movement of an arm or a leg away from the midline of the trunk. This movement occurs in the coronal plane.

Adduction: This movement is movement of a limb towards the body in the coronal plane

Medial: To be located near the median plane of the body

Lateral: To be located away from the median plane

Rotation: This is basically movement of part of the body along its long axis

Table of Muscles

Muscle

Origin

Insertion

Pectoralis Major

Sternum, Clavicle and upper six coastal cartilage

Lateral lip of bicipital groove of humerus

Serratus Anterior

Upper eight ribs

Medial border and inferior angle of scapula

Trapezius

Occipital Bone, Ligamentum nuchae, spine of seventh cervical vertebra, spines of all thoracic vertebrae

Upper fibers insert into lateral third of clavicle, middle and lower fibers into acromion and spine of scapula

Deltoid

clavicle, acromion and spine of scapula

Deltoid tuberosity of humerus

Latissmus Dorsi

lumbodorsal fascia via thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, sacrum, ilium intertubercular groove of the humerus

Supra Spinatus

Supraspinous fossa of the scapula

Greater tubercle of the humerus

Infra Spinatus

Infraspinous fossa of the scapula

Greater tubercle of the humerus

Teres Major

Inferior angle of scapula

Lesser tubercle of humerus

Teres Minor

Lateral border of scapula

Greater tubercle of humerus

Subscapularis

Subscapular fossa of the scapula

Lesser tubercle of humerus

Biceps Long head

Supraglenois tubercle of the scapula

Radial tuberosity of the radius

Biceps short head

Coracoid process of the scapula

Radial tuberosity of the radius

Triceps Long head

Infraglenoid tubercle of scapula

Olecranon process of ulna

Triceps lateral head

Posterior humerus

Olecranon process of ulna

Triceps Medial Head

Posterior humerus

Olecranon process of ulna

Rectus Femoris

Anterior inferior Iliac Spine

Via quadriceps tendon into patella and them through ligament patellae onto the tibial tuberosity of the tibia

Vastus Lateralis

Greater Trochanter of the femur

Via quadriceps tendon into patella and them through ligamentum patellae onto the tibial tuberosity of the tibia

Vastus Medialis

Linea Aspera

Via quadriceps tendon into patella and them through ligamentum patellae onto the tibial tuberosity of the tibia

Vastus Intermedius

Shaft of femur

Via quadriceps tendon into patella and them through ligamentum patellae onto the tibial tuberosity of the tibia

Gastrocnemius

Lateral and medial condyle of the femur

Calcaneus

Soleus

Proximal tibia and fibula; interosseous membrane

Calcaneus

Gluteus Maximus

Posterior Ilium, Sacrum and Coccyx

Illiotibial tract and gluteal tuberosity of femur

Gluteus Minimus

Lateral Ilium

Greater Trochanter of the femur

External Oblique

Lower Eight Ribs

Xiphoid Process, linea alba, pubic crest and tubercle and iliac crest

Internal Oblique

Lumber Fascia, iliac crest, lateral two third of inguinal ligament

Lower three ribs and coastal cartilages, linea alba, xiphoid process and the symphsis pubis

Muscles Involved

To get into specific details, there are different muscles that come into action during a one handed back hand stroke. During the acceleration phase, there are legs muscles used that allow the lower body to be pushed off. These muscles include the concentric gluteus, quadriceps, gastocnemius and soleus. Following that, there is the action of trunk rotation. As the name suggest, this part would involve the trunk muscles. These muscles include the Obliques, abdominals, and the concentric and eccentric back extensors. Following that, there is the arm forward swing. In this action, most of the muscles of the body are used. These include two of the rotator cuff muscles namely the teres minor and the infraspinatus. Along with those, the muscles involved are the rhomboid, posterior deltoid, serratus anterior, triceps, trapezius and the concentric wrist extensors.

In the follow through phase, there is the trunk rotation part and the arm deceleration. For the trunk rotation, there is the use of obliques, concentric and eccentric abdominals, and the back extensors. In the arm deceleration action, the player will make use of the eccentric wrist flexors, subscapularis, pectoralis major and the biceps.

Breakdown of the shot

Push Off

In the preparation or the push off of the shot, there are two phases. Firstly, there is stepping in the right position with the right leg forward. The other movement is to pick up the racquet and not making it go ahead of the shoulder level. These two moves just in the start of the shot are achieved by the deltoid and the bicep muscles. The joint that is used is the elbow joint in the beginning. This allows the player to extend his arm and allow the action of the triceps to come in action. This action happens at the shoulder or the glenohumeral joint. In this, the player would also make use of the cervical vertebrae as he or she moves his head to see where the ball is coming from.

Trunk

After setting the preparation or loading phase in action, the now main action is to hit the ball. Firstly there would hip rotation towards where the ball is coming from. This action is taken forth by the gluteus…

Internship at SCFB I Worked Term Paper

These were major projects and I spent a large amount of time and effort completing them. It was also a significant learning experience for me, since I was able to use the skills I learned during my college years and apply them to a real life situation. I therefore felt very satisfied with my work on a variety of levels, not least because I felt it was worked well and professionally done. I was very pleased with the finished product. I felt it was my first truly important job in a professional setting. It was a wonderful and satisfying experience.

My second defining moment was a conflict situation that arose between my executive director and CFO. What happened was that the Korean Financial Supervision Institute required the bank to use the Economic Capital method in the Internal Capital Adequacy Assessment Process (ICAAP). My executive director, who is Korean, wanted to maintain the existing use of Economic Capital. The British DFO, on the other hand, wanted to change the use of the regulatory capital method, since this was required by the British Financial Supervisory Authority. At its basis, it was therefore a conflict that stemmed from different nationalities and loyalties, while culture possibly also played a role. What defined this conflict for me was the way in which it was resolved. The CFO and executive director reached a compromise by using the varied Economic Capital in ICAAP in the Korean branch. In this way, the method would satisfy the local Financial Supervision Institution’s requirements, while some of the requirements in Britain were also satisfied. They also agreed to investigate, prove and report the value differences between the Economic Capital method and the regulatory capital method. What was interesting about this is that it required the two professionals to work together in a productive and functional way to reach a common goal. Despite the fact that they were in disagreement about the best single method to use. Later, the variations in regulatory capital reported for the British FSA would help the Standard Charted Bank to vary Regulatory capital. The final outcome was that the head CEO in Britain allowed the use of Economic Capital in Korea to satisfy the local regulation.

What was important for me in experiencing this conflict was the fact that two professionals with completely divergent opinions were able to resolve the conflict without letting it escalate to a full-blown disagreement or even a “fight.” Instead, they provided an excellent example of effective conflict resolution that ultimately resulted in a complete resolution of the situation itself. Furthermore, by compromising, they also created an opportunity to work together effectively, and ultimately they created a platform for a solution and for working together in the long-term. This type of conflict resolution is good for any business, since escalating conflict creates a situation where employees and managers either relocate or create an unfavorable atmosphere at the workplace. Replacing managers affects a significant proportion of the business, and it is likely that a significant period would be required to return all the functions of the business to their previous status of optimal functioning. On the other hand, when conflict is resolved amicably, the negative effect upon the work atmosphere and functioning is much less pronounced. This is an important principle that I will be able to use for the rest of my life in my business relationships.

A third defining moment during my internship is the strikes that occurred during this time. This is probably the most intense manifestation of corporate disagreement. Observing these strikes provided me with a vast amount of information about conflict, negotiation, and resolution. At the heart of these lessons is the understanding that the lifeblood of any business is its employees. Without them, the business cannot succeed. It is therefore vital that managers do what they can to provide employees with a sense of purpose and satisfaction in their work. When the specific reasons for the strikes in question are observed, it becomes clear that there is a link between worker satisfaction, work excellence, and the health of a company.

The first strike, as reported by Cynthia J. Kim, lasted for only one day. At the heart of this strike was the managerial proposal of a change to the payment system from its current basis on seniority to one that is based on performance. The reason for the proposal was to provide an incentive for employees to perform better in their work.

However, the fundamental flaw in this reasoning is that managers did not take into account the existing satisfaction levels of employees. From the article, it also does not seem that employees were consulted before the proposal was made. A major transition like this, especially where the livelihood of employees is concerned, requires a sensitive approach. At bottom, the most important consideration is that payment is one of the primary drivers of work satisfaction. The scale of the strike implies that very few, if any, employees were satisfied with the proposed change. Another important consideration is that, employees who are not happy with the way in which salaries are awarded are very unlikely to be satisfied in their work, and will furthermore be unlikely to provide the desired improvement in performance.

On the other hand, it can also be understood that managers want to provide incentives for their employees to perform better, especially since the bank is providing a service to the public. The reputation of the business therefore depends upon the level of service provided by employees. The principle that drove the decision to change the payment structure is therefore sound. However, the flaw lies in the fact that employees were never consulted. In today’s business world, employees can no longer be treated like automatons who are expected to simply accept decisions handed down by management. Concerns like salaries, which directly affect their well-being, should be fully disclosed and discussed with all concerned. It should also be ensured that an agreement is reached that is favored by all concerned. There should be a recognition that both sides have valide concerns: management seeks improved performance; and employees seek continued financial well-being and job security.

The employees involved in the strike as cited appear to be willing to negotiate, having engaged in strike action only for one day, after which they stated their willingness to meet with managers. It is important to note that they also indicated that a lack of concession from managers would result in further strike action.

The second article, by Kim Yon-se, indicated that the negotiations were, after all, unsuccessful. More than half of the bank’s wokers proposed to strike following the negotiations, in which management made several concessions and compromises regarding the proposed change to the salary system. From this article, it appears that the union members do not wish for any compromise, but rather for the salary system to remain as it has been. There is no willingness to concede on the part of the employees.

What becomes clear from this type of conflict is that the unwillingness to compromise on the part of one of the negotiating parties results in an impasse and prolonged conflict. The main problem is that these employees hold considerable power over managers, as strike action could cripple the functioning of the institution. Although the bank would send non-striking employees to the branches most affected, a prolonged strike would severely affect the ability of the bank to maintain excellence in its customer service sector.

The question is then whether management should yield to the striking workers and maintain the status quo of the seniority-based pay system, which has been the protocol in Korean business of the kind. The main driver for the proposed change was the projection of increased competition and improved customer service. However, the way in which the change was proposed was faulty to begin with. Management simply proposed the change without negotiating with employees. This was a shortcoming on the part of management and it instigated the conflict. The conflict, however, continued as a result of the failure of employees to compromise, even in response to a much improved offer that would be to the advantage of the employees affected. A later article reported that, after three weeks of strikes, the bank was considering closing 43 of its branches temporarily to prevent work overload for the remaining employees.

The main reason for the continuing strike was that the bank’s concessions appears “insincere” to union leaders. However, the continuing strike appeared to bring neither managers nor employees any positive outcomes, since the bank was driven by a mandate from its headquarters. Perhaps a good compromise would have been to accept the bank’s offer. In the even that it indeed proved to be insincere, employees would then be within their right to strike.

Personally, observing these strikes was a defining moment for me for several reasons. First, the sheer scale of the strikes was significant. It was quite an experience…

Solitude Feminist Crit the Power of the Essay

Solitude Feminist Crit

The Power of the Feminine in Garcia Marquez’s One Hundred Years of Solitude

Gabriel Garcia Marquez in his work One Hundred Years of Solitude (1967) spins a tale of postcolonial Columbia that will likely forever be thought of as a classic work of fiction, brought to light during what many think of a serious high point in Latin American Literature. The work is translated to many languages and even today sells a great many copies. (King) The development of the tale is that of the founding of a city by a single couple and all the ways in which this couple and their various offspring relate to the world, from within the scope of their town. The many generational tale encompasses a century and begins with the development of a core relationship, that between Jose Arcadio Buendia and his wife and cousin Ursula. This work will first develop the context and methodology of the novel and then discuss the work through a feminist critical perspective. The work will argue the thesis that the interwoven female characters, with Ursula as their moral compass demonstrate Garcia Marquez’s ideation of the power of Latin American women, as they serve as constant interlopers defining what is and what is not acceptable and moral for each other as well as for the whole, teaching one another through their lived experience how easy it can be to become the “other,” the mistress instead of the wife. This concept can be seen in the manner in which the women of Macondo, all walking a fine line between wives and mistresses in an isolated system, dictated ultimately by what Ursula will accept or reject. Macondo can in fact be seen as an enlarged example of the family home, a village of mirrors, as was prophesied by Jose Arcadio Buendia and made a reality by Ursula.

Jose Arcadio Buendia builds his village from a vision he has while sleeping after many days of wandering with his new bride and cousin Ursula. Macondo is a sort of Eden set apart from others and demonstrative of a singular union, the one between this fated pair, Jose and Ursula:

At that time Macondo was a village of twenty adobe houses, built on the bank of a river of clear water that ran along a bed of polished stones, which were white and enormous, like prehistoric eggs. The world was so recent that many things lacked names, and in order to indicate them it was necessary to point. (Garcia Marquez 1)

The little village named Macondo does not remain a small village for long as the outside world encroaches upon it and demonstrates a great power over the seven generations of Buendias, taking mostly the men to and from as the political reality of the world demonstrates power over them. The context of the little village as it begins, is that it should be isolated from the world outside, and separated from the wars and conflicts associated with the turn of the 20th century and Columbia’s colonialism. The work details an attempt by one fictional family to separate themselves from the devalued culture of their colonizers and by that same virtue their own culture, and in this case even their own family, which would have rejected their union, in collective fear of incestuous offspring. (Lanzen Harris)

One of the characters, not of the Buendia family, that travels between the world of Macondo and the outside world is the gypsy Melquiades, who returns indefatigable from his death in the outside world to Macondo, to live out a second life with the Buendia family.

Melquiades… introduces Jose Arcadio to the wonders of science, which absorbs the indefatigable patriarch to the exclusion of all else. He ends his life in madness, tied to a tree and babbling in Latin. Ursula, conversely, is strong and pragmatic. She is the only character who lives to see the beginning and end of the Buendia dynasty. Throughout her long life, she reinforces one of Garcia Marquez’s central themes: that time is circular, and that it is characterized by endless repetitions and recurrences. The actual events of life in Macondo are described in mythic and epic terms, lending the work an atemporal quality. The ghosts of the dead are ever-present members of the family, and they, too, seem to defy time. (Lanzen Harris)

In many ways the work is a bildungsroman tale of the evolution of each generation, but no one is more evolving and yet more solid than Ursula. Yet, the final curtain reveals that no generation really evolved, as the story begins with a fear of the incestuous couple producing an offspring with a pigs tale, and ends with the actual even taking place, six generations removed from the mythical Adam and Eve characters found in work. Jose Arcadio Buendia, in comparison to Ursula is distracted and disinterested in his role as a father and grandfather. He to some extent falls prey to the political, bringing him to focus on things outside of family, seated firmly in science and nature. (Sangari 157) Jose Arcadio Buendia is in fact dismissed early in the work, leaving a legacy of repetitive familial misdeeds and a near constant presence without being present, much as he was in life.

Jose Arcadio Buendia finally got what he was looking for…That discovery excited him much more than any of his other harebrained undertakings. He stopped eating. He stopped sleeping… He would spend the nights walking around the room thinking aloud, searching for a way to apply the principles of the pendulum to oxcarts, to harrows, to everything that was useful when put into motion. (76-77)

Jose Arcadio Buendia was ever-present but without the authority of presence. Beyond his first few stoic decisions, and his care for Rebeca and others his whole existence in the novel is shadowy and disenchanted. He marks time that never passes an example of this is his lengthy diatribe regarding the fact that every day is the same and that today although he’s been told that its Tuesday is actually Monday all over again. (77-78) Finally, he evolves into a ghost that travels to the house trying to make sense of things.

It was as if God had decided to put to the test every capacity for surprise and was keeping the inhabitants of Macondo in a permanent alternation between excitement and disappointment, doubt and revelation, to such an extreme that no one knew for certain where the limits of reality lay. It was an intricate stew of truths and mirages that convulsed the ghost of Jose Arcadio Buendia with impatience and made him wander all through the house even in broad daylight. (221)

Ursula on the other hand is describe throughout the work as a pragmatic, stoic and logical character. In one passage Jose Arcadio Buendia and Ursula are directly compared:

While Ursula and girls unpacked furniture, polished silverware, and hung pictures of maidens in boats full of roses, which gave a new life to the naked areas the masons have built, Jose Arcadio Buendia stop his pursuit of the image of God, convinced of His nonexistence, and he took the pianola a part in order to decipher its magical secret. (61)

Jose Arcadio Buendia was never his wife’s equal in the practical even when the family was in dire need of his rationality. Ursula held the family together in almost every way. In many ways this can be thought of as the expression of feminine power within the work. Because although there were so much that was out of the control of the family Ursula still always manage to feed clothe and care for anyone and she deemed worthy of it. Bellow Watson discusses the realization of feminine power through the change in a standard stereotypical concept that of the only feminine power laying in the woman’s ability to get what she wanted through her sexuality. Bellow Watson in fact states that feminine power is expressed especially in literature through the realization

Women, like other groups with minority status, adopt various forms of accommodation to protect themselves. The most essential form of ac-commodation for the weak is to conceal what power they do have and to avoid anything that looks like threat or competition. Therefore we must not expect either the literature written by women or that written by men based on their observations of women to tell us much about so sensitive a topic in the form of declarations, manifestos, plot summaries, or even the broad outlines of characterization. We begin instead to look at such techniques as ambiguity, equivocation, and expressive symbolic struc-ture. (113)

Ursula is fully aware of everything that is happening today and has happened in the past with regard to the practical aspects of her home. It is not until the very end of the story that Ursula begins to be described as bordering on senility, within the context one must remember that she is 130 years old that this…

Validating the Effectiveness of Participation in a Term Paper

Validating the Effectiveness of Participation in a Time-Sensitive Closed Therapeutic Group for Preschool Aged Children Allegedly Sexually Abused

This paper will review existing research on allegedly sexually abused preschool aged children. The traumatic psychological effects of the abuse including low self-esteem, poor peer relationships, behavior problems, cognitive functioning and physical/mental health will also be evaluated.

The author notes the paucity of available material on sexually abused children. Very little therefore is known of the effectiveness of psychotherapy to assist in the treatment of the problems of this particular group of abused children – a population of 40 selected children with a mean age of 45, with their parents (either father or mother) and/or caregivers attending sessions in another session hall at the same time the children are undergoing therapy.

This proposed study will therefore focus on how mental health services are provided to preschool children with ages ranging between 4 and 6 who have been allegedly sexually abused and the extent to which poor social skills and low self-concept affect this population.

The sample will be from Bethesda Alternative, a non-profit agency in Norman that specializes in the treatment of sexually abused children, their non-offending caretakers, and the suspected perpetrators of sexual crimes against children.

The information acquired will be integrated into sexual abuse literature and provide additional insight into the delivery of mental health services to the allegedly sexually abused preschool children.

Chapter I

INTRODUCTION

Childhood sexual abuse is one of society’s major problems today. It is not germane to a particular race, gender, age or socioeconomic status. In far too many cases, it will be noted that children who were sexually abused in their early years identify with the abusers and become abusers in themselves in later years. They also indulge in many deviant behavior. The effects of childhood sexual abuse are thus magnified as more adults disclose an early sexual abuse history.

Because of these disclosures, concerned educators, policy makers, psychiatrists, clinicians, nurses, guidance counselors and religious groups have agitated for an effective treatment for sexually abused children. This is clearly an indication of the need for the problem to be addressed in a more dynamic, more effective and more thorough fashion.

What indeed is childhood sexual abuse? In this paper childhood sexual abuse will be defined as any “forced or coerced sexual action or behavior imposed on a child or any sexual activity between a child and a much older person whether or not obvious coercion is involved.”

The sexual behavior may include non-contact abuse, including exposing the child to indecent suggestions and exhibitionisms and/or contact abuse, including any sexual touching, genital contact, involving either the perpetrators or victim’s genitals and/or abuse involving actual penetration.” It may also mean inappropriate sexualized behavior, sexually acting out, characterized by a feeling of low self-esteem, and regressive behavior in the child victim.

Because of the increased number of sexual abuse cases among preschool aged children, clinicians, teachers, parents, school programs are intensifying and expanding their activities and capabilities to address this issue.

There is empirical evidence that the rate of spontaneous recovery is high following the disclosure of sexual abuse. (Benther Williams and Zetzer, 1994) although other authorities dispute this recovery frequency (Adams, Tucker, 1984).

Results are often described as having consequences that can be felt throughout an individual’s life (Newberger and Devos, 1988). The validity of current treatments need to be established.

Depending on the criteria used, the prevalence of sexual abuses ranges from 150,000 to 200,000 cases reported per year (Reid-Alter, Gibbs, Lachenmeyer, Sigal and Massoth, 1996). Treatments tend to focus on the negative behavior of the sexually abused child. Major treatment modalities used for the sexually abused child include cognitive behavior therapy, psychodynamic therapy, play therapy and various allied therapies. These common treatments attempted to reduce negative behaviors and assist the child to relive the experience in a supportive environment. These interventions however fail to treat concomitant deficits associated with the effects of sexual abuse on the preschooler. The so-termed co-marked deficits include low self-esteem, inadequate special skills, labile mood, limited frustration tolerance, temper, tantrums and outbursts, chronic school failure and academic underachievement that often results in an emotional and behavioral disorder (EBD) label. Evaluative reports on treatments for sexual abuse among preschool aged children have focused on the aforementioned treatment modalities associated with the individual experience.

Research studies related to sexual abuse make extensive references to the difficulties faced by preschool aged children who have allegedly been sexually abused. Children who have been sexually abused tend to suffer from low self-esteem, have difficulty with impulse control issues and have difficulty developing poor relationships.

Similarly psychotherapy has been found effective in the treatment of low self-esteem, impulse control and poor peer relationships. In contrast, there is very little research material in psychology on the treatment of children, specifically pre-school-aged who have been allegedly sexually abused. This in spite of the fact that psychotherapy has been found effective in intervention modalities. There is very little available research on how mental health treatment is provided to preschool aged children.

Purpose of the Study

It is the purpose of this study to evaluate the effectiveness of a structured, time sensitive, closed therapeutic program for allegedly sexually abused pre-school children whose median age is five years. Despite the psychological aspects of the problem, there is no treatment study which has been conducted which evaluated the effectiveness of the therapy which has been applied to this particular population of preschool children allegedly sexually abused. This study therefore is intended to provide the preliminary investigation concerning the delivery of mental health services to a structured, closed, time sensitive preschool-aged group and the benefits of psychotherapeutic treatment for low self-esteem, impulse control and poor peer treatments.

Statement of the Problem

What is the nature and process of mental health counseling for preschool aged children who have been allegedly sexually abused? What behavioral changes occurred in the children upon completion of the structured, time sensitive, closed therapeutic program?

Methodology

The independent variables will be measured by changes in social skills, self-esteem, impulse control and sexualized behavior.

An empirical analysis will be used by the researcher to describe the nature and process of the counseling mental health program. She will describe in detail each aspect of change in behavior in each of the 40 child participants in the program. A description of the sessions held for parents/caregivers will also be done by this researcher and the corresponding assessment will be included.

A structured interview will be presented and analyzed to determine the appropriateness for participation in the program.

To validate the effectiveness of the VOCA-funded mental health therapeutic program, the researcher proposes to use the Chi Square -Multiple Samples method.

Chapter II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

When a child acts in a disorderly, disconnected manner, his nervous force is under a great strain.” (Montessori, 1949 p. 64)

Over the years, Maria Montessori has studied children, observed them, cared for them, formulated ways by which they can best learn skills and enhance them. When the children’s actions and attitudes are discordant, when he is confused, disoriented, when he doesn’t know what to do, then he is laboring under great stress and his parents, caregivers, teachers must try to ferret out the reasons behind the unseemly, unusual actions and attitudes and institute ways by which he can be brought back to normalcy.

More often than not, the uncoordinated child has been traumatized by an event or incident he is powerless to cope with. The parent/caregiver/teacher/clinician should provide a framework to better recognize and manage this impact of a traumatic incident or event.

Marsha L. Shelov (Children and Trauma; the Role of Parents) thinks that a very important point to consider is how we can identify children who have actually experienced such a trauma. For her a traumatic situation “occurs when sudden or extraordinary external event over-whelms a child’s capacity to cope, producing the inability to master or control the feelings caused by the event. The condition in which the child is exposed to a terrifying event either as a victim or a witness can cause intense feelings of fear and helplessness, an emotional terror. The trauma may be a one-time event or the result of a repeated exposure to traumatic stressors.

Sexual abuse is an example of a traumatic experience. The child’s mind become flooded with impressions of both the attacker’s aggression and the anguish of the victim’s emotional and physical suffering. The severity, duration and proximity of an individual’s exposure to the traumatic event are the most important factors affecting the child’s experience of the event.

Children’s responses to trauma:

According to Shelov, “the first reaction of the child is often an increased sense of fear of further immediate trauma and thus the loss of a child’s usual sense of immunity to such danger. Instead of facing life with a typical sense of openness, a traumatized child may retreat defensively. Mild or severe, a traumatically frightening experience matters deeply to a child and even when the…