Assignment No 1BIO201ID: MC170404186Q.1 What are the differences between DNAand RNA?Answer: DNA RNA 1. DNA is 2_deoxy ribonucleic acid. Sugar is deoxy ribonucleic acid.(H) in the 2nd carbon of sugar.
RNA is ribonucleic acid or ribonucleotide.Sugar is ribose. (OH) in the 2nd carbon of sugar. 2.
DNA is double stranded and self replicating and more stable. RNA is single stranded and not self duplicating and less stable. 3. The bases in DNA are Adenine(A),Guanine (G), Cytosine(C) and Thymine (T). The bases in RNA are Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Cytosine(C) and Uracil (U). 4. DNA is the genetic material in all organisms. RNA is genetic material only in few viruses in retroviruses like HIV.
5. DNA is occurs inside nucleus and also present in organelles like mitochondrion and chloroplast in plants. In cells RNA is primarily present in the cytoplasm. 6. Purine and Pyrimidine bases are equal in numbers.
There is no proportionality in between numbers of purine and pyrimidine bases. 7. Two types of DNA is present inter nuclear or nuclear DNA.Extra nuclear or organelle DNA in mitochondrion and chloroplast. There are three types of RNA. mRNA (direct protein synthesis) rRNA (ribose synthesis) tRNA(as adaptor molecule in protein synthesis 8. Funtion of DNA is to transfer genetic information from one generation to other.
Function is to direct is to direct synthesis of protein or helps in translation. Some with enzymatic activity called as ribozymes. 9. DNA is spirally twisted to produce a regular helix. The strand may get folded at places to produce a secondary helix or pseudo helix.
10. DNA occurs in the form of chromatin or chromosomes. RNA occurs in ribosomes or forms association with ribosomes.
11. DNA transcribes genetic information to RNA.Its quantity is fixed for cell. RNA translates the transcribed message for forming polypeptides. The quantity of RNA of a cell is variable. 12.
Renaturation after melting is slow. It is quite fast. 13. It is long lived.
Some RNAs are very short lived while others have somewhat longer life. 14. The helices geometry of DNA is of B- Form.DNA is protected in the nucleus, as it is tightly packed.DNA can be damaged by exposure ultra-violet rays. The helix geometry of RNA is of A-Form.RNA strands are continually made, broken down are reused. RNA is more resistant to damage by ultra-violet rays.