As classify HRC into four categories: Primitive interaction is

As a branch of knowledge, human-robot collaboration (HRC)
regards the analysis, design, modeling, implementation, and evaluation of
robots for human use. HRC is strongly related to human-computer interaction
(HCI) and human-machine interaction (HMI). HRC, however, differs from HCI and
HMI because HRC concerns systems (i.e., robots) which have complex, dynamic
control systems, which exhibit autonomy and cognition, and which operate in
changing, real-world environments. HRC may occur through direct, proximal
interaction (e.g., physical contact) or may be mediated by a user interface
(“operator interface” or “control station”). In the latter case, the interface
acts as a translator: it transforms human input (from hand-controllers or other
control devices) to robot commands and provides feedback via displays. When the
human and robot are separated by a barrier (distance, time, etc.) and
information is exchanged via a communication link, then the interaction is
called teleoperation.

Takeda et al. classify HRC into four categories: Primitive
interaction is communication via computer-based interfaces; Intimate
interaction is direct, one-to-one interaction (e.g., gesture); Loose
interaction is interaction at a distance; Cooperative interaction involves
automatically introducing additional robots and people as needed by the

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Milgram, Zhai and Drascic claim that for telemanipulation,
human-robot communication can be classified into continuous and discrete
languages. Continuous language represents continuously distributed spatial or
temporal information, e.g., analogue displays and input devices such as mice
and joysticks. Discrete language consists of independent elements such as
spoken commands and interface tools.

Laengle, Hoeniger, and Zhu discuss how humans and robots
can function as a team. Humans perform task planning, monitoring and
supervision. Robots act as intelligent, autonomous assistants and interact
symbolically and physically. This interaction is achieved via natural language,
gestures, and touch.

Sheridan notes that one of the challenges for human-robot
communication is to provide humans and robots with models of each other. In
particular, he claims that the ideal would be analogous to two people who know
each other well and can pick up subtle cues from one another in order to
collaborate (e.g., musicians playing a duet).

In recent years, much of the work in HRC has focused on
making robots more “human”. Specifically, many researchers have been developing
robots which perform human tasks, which exhibit human traits, and which can
interact via natural language and gestures.


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