Argumentative Paper Outline Introduction Thecommon notion is that rewards will elicit the desired outcomes from employees,students, etc. However, this notion is debatable as many opponents believe thatthe provision of rewards diminishes one’s intrinsic motivation and thereforedecreases performance. Research on the Self Determination Theory shows us thatautonomy, competence, and relatedness are important psychological needs forfostering intrinsic motivation. Different sources state that extrinsic motivationcrowd out intrinsic motivations that are needed to produce the desiredbehavior. Some conflicts that arise are monetary incentives may change how sometasks are perceived, if not large enough it can change cause undesirableeffects on behavior, and if incentives are a short term which can weakenmotivation.
This will cause the extrinsic reward to be ineffective leading topoor performance. Whenand Why Incentives (Don’t) Work to Modify Behavior: Manypeople have the belief that incentives matter and lead to more effort andhigher performance. Incentives have become popular in behavioral interventions.People may argue that incentives such as monetary can be helpful in acquiringthe desired behavior. Others argue that incentives can backfire, becauseextrinsic incentives may have a negative effect and crowd out intrinsicmotivations that are important to producing the desired behavior.
Some of the negative effects can change theperception of tasks, if the monetary incentive isn’t large it can lead toundesirable behavior, and if it’s short term it can weaken intrinsicmotivation. Extrinsic motivation may achieve a goal in the short term but willhave a major effect on long-term goals. An example that the article used wasgetting children to read.
Extrinsic motivation will help a child accomplishthat short-term goal, but will be counterproductive as an incentive to getchildren to enjoy and seek reading throughout their lifetime. The articlediscusses research literature on three important examples in which monetaryincentives have been used in a nonemployment context to foster the desiredbehavior: education; increasing contributions to public goods; and helpingpeople change their lifestyles (pg 192.) Motivationand Education: The Self-Determination Perspective: The mainconcern of the Self Determination Theory in education is to promote an interestin learning, the value of education, and confidence in one’s capabilities. Thiscauses the individual to be intrinsically motivated, internalize values andregulatory processes.
The article discusses research that supports that theseprocesses produce high-quality learning and conceptual understanding thatenhances personal growth. It also describes the social contextual factors whichnurture intrinsic motivation and promotes internalization leading to thedesired outcome (pg 325.) UsingSelf Determination Theory Principles to Promote Engineering Students’ IntrinsicMotivation to Learn: Studentswho are intrinsically motivated are able to learn more and tend to retainknowledge longer than students who aren’t. Research done on the SelfDetermination Theory shows us the framework of motivation that can be applied.
The SDT is based on three psychological needs such as autonomy, competence, andrelatedness. People want to control their own choices and exercise theirfreedom to choose whatever they believe is in their best interest. People needknowledge and skills in order to succeed. The last component is relatednesswhich is the sense of belonging and shared purpose. Engineer students weregiven the option to choose a design projects and homework problems to completeinstead of having the mandatory midterm exams and homework assignments. Overthe course of the semester students were given more autonomy, eventually, thereached the level of autonomy of the final design project like a seniorcapstone design course. The program was designed to give students the sense ofcompetence and relatedness.
AnInvestigation of the Unique, Synergistic and Balanced Relationship betweenbasic Psychological Needs and Intrinsic Motivation: Thepurpose of the article was to investigate the relationship betweenpsychological need satisfaction and intrinsic motivation. There are threehypotheses that were tested regarding the relationship between needsatisfaction and intrinsic motivation. The three were additive, synergistic,and balance. The more complex and interesting the work is the higher theintrinsic motivation. The Self Determination Theory supports that intrinsic motivationis present when employees fulfill their psychological needs such as autonomy,competence, and relatedness. The theory states that it is human nature forpeople to be curious, exhibit interest, and need fulfillment that contributesto feelings of success which are personally satisfying and rewarding.
AchievementGoals and Intrinsic Motivation: A Meta-Analytic Review: Intrinsicmotivation is what drives people to reach goals. There have been many research studiesdone on the effects of performance and achieve on intrinsic motivation. Most showthat there is a link between achievement and intrinsic motivation.
There are twodistinct forms of achievement goals are mastery goals and performance goals. Masterygoals is the focus on the development competence and task mastery, whereas performancegoals focuses on the demonstration of competence compared to others (Pg 326.) IntrinsicMotivation: Intrinsicmotivation is internally based on one’s interest in the activity. There are noexternal rewards that drive an individual to be intrinsically motivated. Conclusion(4-6 sentences)Endwith a conclusion that suggests the larger importance of this issue, and whyyour readers should support your thesis statement. Create a final statementthat is powerful and memorable.