Anna McGillis 1-18-18 IMMUNE SYSTEMPROJECT Period 6, SLS43-10As early as A.D 1000, people in India, China, andAfrica would expose themselves to mild cases of smallpox in order to acquireimmunity for the disease. This is where the idea of vaccinations firstoriginated. It has been theorized that ancient civilizations such as China,India, and Persia have been practicing vaccination since 1000 B.C.
They used aprocess called variolation in which patients would be injected with a sample ofthe disease in an open wound on their body. This process can be effective indeveloping immunity, yet some experience a harmful attack since the disease isstill alive. These theories have never been proved true, but the first recordedcreation of a vaccine was by Edward Jenner who was born May 17th in Berkeley,Gloucestershire. Orphaned at an age of five, Edwards interest in science wasalways a constant in his life. He started as a surgeon’s apprentice and laterstudied anatomy and surgery at St. George’s Hospital, London with surgeon JohnHunter. Edward returned to Berkeley in 1772 to practice general medicine andsurgery as a local doctor. Edward continued his research on vaccinations duringhis career until 1796 when he tested his vaccination on an eight-year-old boy.
He inserted the pus from a cow pustule into the arm of the boy, and his theorywas proved right as he never contracted the cowpox disease. In 1797 Edwardsubmitted his findings on vaccinations to the Royal Society but was told thatthere was not enough proof. Edward Jenner was driven to justify his findings sohe began to test on many other children including his own 11-month old son. In1798 he was able to publish findings and called his treatment a vaccine due tothe word for cow in Latin being ‘Vacca.’ Once published many people did notagree with his means of testing with material from a diseased animal. Edwarddid not stop his research and was able to spread vaccinations due to theirevident benefits. He died on the 26th of January, 1823.Vaccines work by injecting weakened or deadmicrobes into healthy individuals.
The weakened microbes do not cause diseasebut their antigens trigger immune responses as it would to a real infection. Theimmune system produces memory cells which create immunity against ensuing exposureto the living and dangerous microbes. Using genetic engineering tailor-madevaccines can be made. You can do this by synthesizes the antigenic proteins ofthe disease-causing microbes. The antigens are used as vaccines and do not needto be injected along with a weakened or dead microbe.
The second way you can dothis is by inserting genes that encode the antigens into the genome of harmlessmicrobes. The “designer” microbes produce antigens without causingthe disease.Measles was one of the most contagious virusesduring the 20th century. Measles has been speculated to have been around sincethe 9th century due to a Persian doctor writing a paper on encountering adisease which resembles measles. By 1912, 6,000 measles deaths were expected peryear and measles was labeled as an official problem to the Unites states. By1963, a vaccine for measles was created by John Enders with the help of hiscolleagues.
The CDC struggled in their fight against measles but were able todecrease the number of reported measles cases by 80% in 1981. By 2000 measleswas said to be eradicated. In the recent years, evidence suggests that this isnot the case. In 2013 measles cases in the states tripled, even though 90% ofthe American population does have their vaccinations. On March 7th of 2014,there has been an outbreak of an outbreak of measles in northern Manhattan andthe Bronx. Canadian officials also reported that five new cases of measles werereported to be in in British Columbia. 2014 itself has been reported to have667 cases of measles from 27 different states.
No number of cases has been thishigh in the states since 2000. In 24 states and the District of Columbia, 188cases of measles were reported in 2015. In 2016 there were 86 cases from 16states. In 2017 there were 120 cases from 15 states. The flu virus is a very common in the UnitedStates. It is recommended that people get a shot every year in preparation forflu season.
Though seen as harmless, the flu virus may actually belife-threatening to the elderly due to the degrading of the immune response.There are three different ways that the flu vaccine is made. The first and mostcommon way is egg-based flu vaccines. This is used to make both the inactivevaccine, called the flu shot, and the live, weakened flu vaccine, also known asa nasal spray.
The production is started by providing private sectormanufacturers with the candidate vaccine viruses. The candidate vaccine virusesare then implanted into fertilized hen’s eggs. The virus replicates itself overa time period of a couple days. The fluid containing the virus is then takenout of eggs and the virus antigen is purified and tested. The second way tocreate the flu vaccine is with cell-based flu vaccines. First, cell-grown candidate vaccine virusesare treated in cultured mammalian cells and replicate over a few days.
Thevirus-containing fluid is collected from the cells, and the antigen is purifiedand tested until release. The third and final approved method are recombinantflu vaccines. It starts with isolating a certain protein from a vaccine viruswhich will be combined with another virus that grows well in insect cells.After the potential vaccine fuses with the insect cells it replicates. Theprotein is taken from the insect cells and packaged and purified. The flu vaccine is not always effective. This canbe for a number of reasons, but the main one is the flu virus is fastest mutatingviruses out there. The virus can change to a point that memory cells can nolonger identify the flu virus.
More reasons for it failing is that you can acquirethe flu virus too quickly, or you can contract the flu virus after too muchtime has passed between the vaccination and infection. The vaccine will not remaineffective for long periods of time. The memory cell’s life span is notinfinite.
If you get the flu virus before two weeks after the vaccination itwill not be effective. Your body has not had enough time to develop an immuneresponse.Many life-threatening diseases have been preventedfrom causing outbreaks using vaccines.
Over 14 childhood diseases now can betreated with vaccines. Some diseases are harder to solve. An example of this isHIV. When someone contracts HIV, your body does not create the same immuneresponse that it would with a regular virus.
HIV attacks helper T cells whichare responsible for most of the immune response. Helper T cells also help increating memory cells which remember the disease. The virus kills the cells thata vaccine would induce to create an immune response. Anti-vaccinationmovements have been around for a long time, even dating back to the time ofsmallpox in England. The Vaccination Acts of 1853 and 1867 required children toreceive vaccines after Edward Jenner had created them. In response to this TheAnti Vaccination League, Anti-Compulsory Vaccination League, and manyanti-vaccination journals were created as a backlash. These anti-vaccinationmovements are dangerous though.
Viruses or bacteria begin to become immunizedif the amount of people vaccinated in a population is high enough. An examplecan be polio. Polio was slowly becoming obsolete once about 70% of the populacewere given their vaccines. The percentage is proportionate though, as lesscontagious diseases would need fewer people to be immunized in order for thespread to slow. The reasons that people choose for their children or themselvesnot to get vaccines are established on misguided decisions. Some of thesereasons include that people believe that if the disease isn’t common, thenthere is no reason to be afraid.
Other decisions are based on fear. Since 1998,vaccines have been speculated to cause autism. This is based on littleevidence, yet the fear of getting autism causes many people to avoid vaccines.Without vaccines, many diseases thought to be under control could appear again,just like the previously mentioned measles. Diseases that cause death anddestruction.
In order to fight these accusations, more dependable information isrequired to be provided to people so they will not have fear of vaccines,something that can save their lives.