Anemia is a condition in which the hemoglobin concentration

Anemia is a condition in which the
hemoglobin concentration is lower than normal. It reflects the presence of
fewer than the normal number of erythrocytes within the circulation. As a
result, the amount of oxygen delivered to body tissue will also diminished.anemia
is not a specific disease by it self , but it could be a sign of an underlying
disorder. There are so many types of anemia which could occur to different ages
, one of these types is called hypo-proprolifrative anemia. It is occur when
the bone marrow can’t produce adequate number of erythrocytes. This will lead
to low reticulocyte count . There are so many factors which can destroy the
bone marrow for example, some certain types of medications such as chloramphenicol
or some chemicals such as benzene. There are so many disease under
hypo-proprolifrative anemia , and the most common one is called ” iron deficiency
anemia “. This disease occur when there is inadequate Intake of the dietary
iron which will affect on the hemoglobin synthesis .

Alcoholism, gastritis, menorrhagia
which is ” excessive menstrual bleeding”, and inflammatory bowel disease. All
of these  could affect on the dietary
intake of iron and affect on the hemoglobin synthesis .

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The clinical manifestations for ”
iron deficiency anemia ” include angular cheilosis, brittle and rigid nails,
smooth,and sore tongue. The diagnostic test which need to be done to dingoes iron
deficiency anemia are bone  arrow
aspiration, hematocrit, hemoglobin, and ferritin values. The medical management
to treat iron deficiency anemia are IV iron fluid , oral iron supplements such
as ferrous sulfate, and ferrous gluconate. There is some instructions the
patient must flow when start to take iron supplements. First, iron supplements
must be taken on an empty stomach. Second, iron supplements need to be taken
with vitamin c to facilitate the absorption of the iron supplements. Third,
patient must increase the fiber intake to prevent the constipation when taking
iron supplements. Fourth, patient must know that iron supplements may change
the color of the stool, so they may become more darker in color . The second
type of anemia is called “hemolytic anemia” which occur because of the release
of hemoglobin from and into the plasma. The hemoglobin will convert to
bilirubin, and this will cause to increase bilirubin concentration which will
cause tissue hypoxia. In anemia the hemoglobin level will be between 9-11 / dL .Anemia will affect on all the body systems . It will cause
shortness of breath, general weakness in all the body, low blood pressure,
fatigue, and dizziness. To diagnose hemolytic anemia there are some diagnostic
test must be done  such as iron studies
which include serum iron level, total iron binding capacity, present saturation,
and ferritin. Other test which will confirm the diagnosis for example, haptoglobin,
erythropoietin,and bone marrow aspiration. The medical management to treat
hemolytic  anemia include replace severe
anemia or destroyed erythrocytes with transfusion of packed ( RBCS).

In case that hemolytic anemia did’t
treat it may cause some serious complication such as angina, heart failure, confusion,
and paresthesias. The most famous example of hemolytic anemia especially in Saudi
Arabia is ” sickle cell anemia” which occur as a result, from inheritance of
sickle hemoglobin gene. This gene will cause the hemoglobin molecule to be
defective. This will lead to change the RBC shaped instead of being round,
pliable, biconcave, and disk shape ,they will become deformed, rigid,and sickle
shaped. This will cause the rigid erythrocytes to adhere to the endothelium of
small vessels, when they adhere to each other, the blood flow will decrease to
a region or an organ, in addition to , the oxygen delivery will also impaired
by an increased blood viscosity. The clinical manifestations for sickle cell
anemia include jaundice, tachycardia, cardiomegaly, dysrhythmias, heart failure,
pain, swelling of joints, fever, and pulmonary hypertension. Sickle cell anemia
may cause serious complication in some body organs such as spleen, lungs, CNS,
kidney, heart, bones, and liver. The treatment for sickle cell anemia include
peripheral blood stem cell transplant, the pharmacological therapy include
hydroxyurea, which is a chemotherapy agent. And the transfusion therapy .

All in all, anemia is a serious
disorder which may be a sign for more complicated diseases.


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