Alcohol such a well coordinated and comprehensive way by

Alcohol consumption among pregnant women is chronic cancer of the century that ought to be addressed. This article is a quantitative study, examining a range of social factors that influence drinking during period of pregnancy among women. In this study, pregnant women were classified on the basis of whether they were light or heavy drinkers before pregnancy period or whether they were convinced to abstain from drinking after knowing side effects associated with alcohol consumption. A range of social factors that contribute to heavy drinking were identified and empirically measured to evaluate their significance levels among women (Testa & Leonard, 1995). The study made statistical predictions and tentative solutions relating to alcohol abuse which were later on substantiated by experimental tests.

Indeed this study is quantitative in nature. There are main features which substantiate the fact that authors were interested in assessing statistically measurable variables that impact the manner in which pregnant women consume alcohol. First and foremost, data used in the study relies on various structured research instruments. For example, while collecting sample population to be used in the study, researchers relied on telephone calls to interview participants on a range of issues relating to alcohol abuse during pregnancy (Testa & Leonard, 1995). Telephone calls made it possible for the participants to be screened for eligibility before being enrolled in the study. Generally, telephone calls have been categorized as comprehensive and structured research instrument used in carrying out a quantitative research study.
Another instrument used for measuring alcohol consumption among heavy and light drinkers is Wilsnack, Klassen, and Wilsnack’s (1986) Lifetime Drinking History tool (Testa & Leonard, 1995). The instrument was used to assess the quantity of consumed alcohol for the last fourteen days in pregnant women. Major patterns were also evaluated by use of this instrument for the last three days thus making the research quantitative. Notably, a questionnaire is another structured instrument making this research being quantitative in nature. This data collection tool was used to record views from the participants on beliefs on how a pregnant woman is supposed to abstain from consuming alcohol when faced with pressure from society (Testa & Leonard, 1995). A questionnaire was also used to gather views on the influence of social networks such as how men impact on their female counterparts and friends to drink alcohol. Administration of the questionnaire was done in such a well coordinated and comprehensive way by a trained interviewer.
Hollingshead index structured instrument was used to assess the economic status of heavy and light alcohol consumers among pregnant women (Testa & Leonard, 1995). For example the level of academic qualifications and development status were known to have a significant impact in impacting on how pregnant women drink alcohol. On the other hand, problems that emanate due to interactions with partners in a given environmental setup were evaluated use of a Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) structured instrument (Testa & Leonard, 1995).RDC has the ability to assess the level of alcoholism in an absent individual by use of family reports in alcoholism. In summary, the following are structured empirical research instrument making this study being quantitative in nature: Wilsnack, Klassen, and Wilsnack’s (1986) Lifetime Drinking History tool, questionnaire, Hollingshead index, use of telephone calls and Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) tool.
The results of the study are based on the sample size that represents total population of those who were willing to participate in the study. A sample size of 159 willing and qualified participants was drawn from a pool of 413 people that was ready to participate in this study (Testa & Leonard, 1995). These women responded to advertisement made on newspapers aimed outsourcing social pregnant drinkers and those referred by prenatal clinics through flyers. The study is also quantitative in nature because it can easily be repeated, replicated due to its high probability of reliability. Prior to conducting this study, researchers had earlier carried a similar study of this nature. They have borrowed a lot from scholarly research works to substantiate their claims. By eliminating over fifteen women who failed to meet set threshold requirements, the study embraces credibility, validity and element of trustworthiness.
The authors managed to define the research question, made their own tentative objective upon which solutions have been found. For example, there is that distinction between light and heavy pregnant women who drink alcohol on different occasions (Testa & Leonard, 1995). The research has managed to unravel the mask of the connection between the impacts of men to pregnant women drinking alcohol, the economic status among other aspects relating to the current study. Research has comprehensive definitions of statistical terms such as correlation as applied in analysis of variance (ANOVA), and significance levels of various variables measured.
Statistical numbers have been arranged in form of tables (scores of the socioeconomic measurements and positive indicators from participants on the impact of social networks on alcohol abuse). Evidently, there is graphical representation of the results such as level of pre-pregnancy drinking versus percentage indications among heavy and light alcohol consumers, and alcohol drinking level versus percentage indication of the difficulty in resisting pressure from friends, family members and other people within social networks (Testa & Leonard, 1995).  These are evident characteristics from this study which justify it being quantitative in nature.

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Probability sampling is major dominant mode of identifying the participants in the study. Out of the 413 people that were willing to participate in this research process, there was high probability for specific participants to be selected because they were to meet specific set conditions. Stratified sampling is evident in the sense that there are two distinct groups of pregnant women (heavy and light alcohol consumers) (Testa & Leonard, 1995). This was embraced by others in order to ensure availability of distinctive features relating to the two major groups of pregnant women so that necessary recommendations could be made to end this conflicting situation. Non-probability sampling is evident. Following advertisement made in news papers and flyers delivered to pregnant women by prenatal clinics, the choice was theirs to participate in this research as opposed to being coerced. Some of the volunteer samples were later on rejected because they failed eligibility criteria.
Transferability of the research is indeed valid and credible; based on the idea that researchers embraced both probability and non-probability sampling methods. There are minimal chances of biases experienced in this research exercise. Sample limitations are only based on those participants who met the set criteria. The research process took place at Research Institute of Addictions. Study was not cross-sectional but not longitudinal. There are no clear certainties of the impact of social networks to alcohol drinking among pregnant women (Testa & Leonard, 1995). Questions on social units were based on the report by women themselves thus higher chances of doctoring views to represent their own sentiments. Independent evaluation of individual drinking attitude was not examined in this study. For future studies, I do recommend embracing longitudinal research in order to avoid notable limitations. Sampling method ought to be done in duplicate.  


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