ABSTRACTIn this paper a low profile and wideband Planar Inverted-F Antenna (PIFA) for wireless communication device like cell phone is presented. The antenna shows a wide range of frequency from 1.54 GHz to 2.
47 GHz and with improved impedance matching covering GPS, DCS, PCS, 3G, 4G and WLAN/Bluetooth bands with VSWR less than 2. The size of top patch of the proposed antenna is 25 x 15 x 0.07 mm3, height of the path from the ground plan is 4mm which makes it compact and a coming candidate for wireless communication devices. The antenna is designed and simulated using ANSYS v17 High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS) Software and shows improve gain with Omni-directional radiation pattern.Keywords: PIFA Antenna; SAR; GSM1800; GSM1900; UMTS; LTE2300; WLAN/Bluetooth.I. INTRODUCTIONIn the past few years, there has been away some growth in the fields of wireless technology. In order to contain latest mobile services, internet access, video streaming etc, operators require additional bandwidth and dealer are forced to design multi-tasking terminals.
In order to meet these requirements, the antenna designers are required to design a low profile antenna such that they can provide the multi standard performance in terms of wideband/multiband frequency range 5.Therefore Planar Inverted F Antenna (PIFA) comes out as a promising candidate in this field. Planar Inverted F Antenna is a low profile antenna with mechanically robust structure and shows wideband/multiband properties. The Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) in PIFA is very low as compared to other conventional antennas and hence less electromagnetic radiations are illuminated towards user’s body and thus increasing antenna’s output. Moreover Planar Inverted F Antennas (PIFA) provides good radiation pattern and low to moderate gain. Apart from different advantages, Major limitation of Planar Inverted F-Antenna is narrow bandwidth. In order to achieve a wide bandwidth different techniques such as large ground plane, thick substrate, slots on ground and on patch etc are given in reference paper45.
PIFA is kept exactly above the battery in the housing of back cover of wireless communication devices like cell phone. Therefore the height of the antenna should not be greater than 6 mm in order to make slim handsets 1 25.In multiple feed Planar Inverted F Antenna (PIFA), various design complexities are included in designing an antenna with multiple frequencies and wide bandwidth whereas a single feed antenna is comparatively easier to design for multiple frequencies and wide bandwidth since each radiating element is contained with its own feed. However multiple feed antennas is not preferred for practical applications due to increase of mutual coupling between separate radiating elements of PIFA. The internal antenna has been using instead of the external antenna the main reason of that is the internal antenna has a good relation with SAR rate, on the other hand the size of wireless communication devices became smaller like cell phone.
Recently there are many types of the internal antennas for example planar inverted F-Antenna (PIFA), fractal antenna and monopole antenna. Those kinds of antennas can cover a single band, dual band, wideband and multiband depend on the design of the antenna.In this paper proposed antenna is compact, low profile and single feed wideband Planar Inverted F Antenna (PIFA) is presented. The antenna provides a wide2bandwidth coverage over multiple frequency bands suchas GPS (1575 MHz), DCS (1800MHz), PCS(1900MHz), 3G (2100 MHz), 4G (2300 MHz) andWLAN/ Bluetooth (2400-2484 MHz). The proposedantenna design has compact structure, involving avolume of 58x40x4 mm3. In this design, two slots arecut on the ground plane and by adjusting the position ofthe slots satisfactory results can be obtained. These slotshelped us to get wideband planar inverted F-antenna. Inthis planar inverted F-antenna shorting plate is placedbetween radiating patch and ground plane.
This antennais designed and simulated using ANSYS v17 HighFrequency Structure Simulator (HFSS) software. Thisproposed wideband planar inverted F-antenna withbandwidth more than 30% and this bandwidth cover animportant range which could cover GPS, GSM, UMTS,LTE, WLAN and Bluetooth frequency bands of wirelesscommunication devises like cell phone.Section II describes the design of proposed planarinverted F-Antenna (PIFA). Different parameters suchas return loss, radiation pattern, gain and VSWR arecharacterized in section III. The comparison of proposedantenna and PIFA 5 is given in section IV. Theconclusion of this work is given in section V.II.
ANTENNA DESIGNConfiguration of the proposed antenna is shown inFigure 1, 2 and 3. The geometry consists of a PlanarInverted F Antenna (PIFA) with two slots cut on groundplane. Detailed Dimension of proposed antenna is givenin table 1. The dimensions of radiating patch of theproposed antenna are 15x25x0.07mm3. The antenna ispositioned on FR4 substrate with dimensions 58x40x1.
6mm3. The dimensions of the ground plane and thesubstrate are compact such that they can be easilypositioned in the housing of wireless devices such asmobile phones. A shorting plate with dimensions3.
4x4x0.07mm3 is used to short the ground plane andradiating patch of planar inverted F-antenna. Theantenna is electrified using co-axial feed which is placednear the shorting plate and at edge of the antenna. Theresonant frequency of planar inverted F-Antenna (PIFA)can be calculated using following expressions:L1 + L2 – W = ?/4………………………………(1)Where,L1 & L2 are width and length of top radiating patch ofplanar inverted F-Antenna (PIFA),W is width of shorting plate.The ground plane, shorting plate and radiating patchprovides two resonant frequencies while the position ofslots is used to provide a wideband impedancebandwidth performance of 1.
54GHz to 2.47GHz andanother band 5.09GHz to 5.32GHz.
The performance ofthe antenna is well-knew in terms of return loss, VSWR,gain and radiation pattern.Figure 1: 3D view of proposed antenna.Figure 2: side of proposed antenna.Figure 3: top view of proposed antenna.
3Table 1: Detailed Dimensions of Proposed PIFA.ParameterValue(mm)ParameterValue(mm)Lg58Wg11.5Wg40Lg222Lp25Wg22Wp15L10Ls4L215.5Ws3.4L327H1.6L44III.
RESULTThe performance of the planar inverted F-Antenna is well-knew in different parameters of antenna like return loss, Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR), gain and radiation pattern.A. Return LossThe simulated return loss plot of the proposed planar inverted F-Antenna (PIFA) is shown in figure 4. From the plot it can be illustrated that the antenna resonates at 1.64 GHz, 2.27 GHz and 5.17 GHz with return loss -17.16, -34.
08 and -14.43 respectively covering GPS L1 (1575 MHz) DCS-1800 (1710.2- 1784.8 MHz), PCS-1900 (1850.2- 1909.
8 MHz), 3G (1885-2100 MHz), 4G (2110-2400 MHz) and WLAN/ Bluetooth (2.40-2.484 GHz) frequency bands.
The proposed PIFA shows a wide frequency range from 1.54 GHz to 2.5 GHz showing impedance bandwidth of 1.0 GHz.Figure 4. Return Loss of proposed PIFAB. Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR)The Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) obtained from proposed Planar Inverted F Antenna (PIFA) is less than 1 which shows that there is perfect matching between antenna and co-axial feed line.
The acceptable value of VSWR is less than 2. The VSWR is 2.4 and 0.
34 at 1.64 GHz and 2.27 GHz respectively.Figure 5: VSWR of proposed PIFAC.
GainThe average peak gain achieved by the proposed planar inverted F-antenna is 3.13 dB which is considered best in case PIFA. Figure 6 shows simulated 3D gain plot of the proposed PIFA.Figure 6: Simulated 3D Gain Plot of proposed PIFA4D. Radiation patternThe radiation pattern of proposed wide band planar inverted F-antenna is shown in figure 7.
As seen from the figure, the radiation pattern of proposed antenna is Omni-directional and hence is suitable for internal antennas for wireless communication devices like cell phone.Figure 7: Simulated Radiation Pattern of proposed PIFAIV. COMPARISON RESULTSTable 2 Comparison between proposed PIFA and conventional PIFA 5Gain (dB)Size of ground plan(mm2)PIFA52.7166.69x40Proposed PIFA3.1358x40V. CONCLUSIONIn this paper, a compact, low profile and single feed wideband Planar Inverted F Antenna (PIFA) is presented.
The antenna provides a wide bandwidth coverage over multiple frequency bands such as GPS (1575 MHz), DCS (1800MHz), PCS (1900MHz), 3G (2100 MHz), 4G (2300 MHz) and WLAN/ Bluetooth (2400-2484 MHz). In this design, two slots are cut on the ground plane and by adjusting the position of that is give us better result satisfactory of band as well as resonance frequency. These slots helped us to get wideband coverage of planar inverted F-antenna.
This planar inverted F-antenna shows Omni-directional radiation pattern and a maximum gain of 3.13 dB that is shown in figure 6. That is higher than conventional antenna as well as reduce the size of the ground plane of the proposed PIFA.
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