Abstract Thisresearch aimed to find out the kinds of strategies and the application of thestrategies which are used by students in primary school in improving vocabularylearning.Descriptive qualitative was applied as a research method to find outthe objective of the research. The techniques of data collection were used inthis research were observation and questionnaire.
The data analysis used inthis research was the interactive model analysis from Miles and Huberman thatconsists of data reduction, data display, and conclusion. The results showedthat there were twenty one kinds of strategies which were used by the studentsin improving vocabulary. The strategies that were employed by the students mostlywere influenced by the teacher’s teaching techniques. The orders of the teacherseemingly become a habit for the student to be conducted automatically in theprocess of language learning. Keywords:VocabularyLearning Strategies, Language Learning. Introduction Englishis one of languages in this world.
With its spreading around the world, it develops into a global language and ameans of international communication. It becomesa challenge for students because it is different from their mother tongue thatthey are accustomed to applying in spoken language every day. Because of that, it is probably hard to be learnt,especially for students in the lower level that is elementary school studentsin understanding the meaning of certain vocabulary.Wilkinsin Thornbury (2002:13) explains about the importance of vocabulary learning.Based on the theory, the first thing that must be first learnt for lower levelstudents in language learning is vocabulary. Lacking vocabulary, studentscannot tell anything that exist in their mind.
And the result is they tend tobe bored and make a noise in the process of learning. Therefore, it requiressome strategies for students in language learning in order to master it,especially in learning vocabulary.Languagelearning strategies require steps that are applied in gaining knowledge oflanguage. Since language learning strategies involve four skills in languagelearning (listening, speaking, reading, and writing), it makes the area oflanguage learning strategies is wide. There is a particular strategy that isneeded by students in improving vocabulary that is vocabulary learningstrategies which known as VLS. Nation (2001:217) states that “vocabularylearning strategies are a part of language learning strategies which in turnare a part of general learning strategies”.
It could be noted that vocabularylearning strategies are part of language learning strategies because its rangeand usage are more specific than language learning strategies.Thosestrategies would seem appropriate to be applied in the following schools sincethey have uniqueness in the learning process such as SDN Kebraon II Surabaya.SDN Kebraon II Surabaya is a state elementary school that is placed in theKebraon Surabaya area. The implementation of learning and teaching process thatis shown in the school is interesting by providing kinds of display items ineach classroom to support the students in gaining the knowledge of languagelearning. The students of SDN Kebraon II Surabaya felt comfortable in languagelearning process in the classroom, especially the fifth grade students.Bythe existence of the great score in the examination, it shows that the fifthgrade students in the school have experienced improvement in vocabularylearning. Based on the fact, this research is aimed at finding out what kindsof strategies that are used by the fifth grade students of SDN Kebraon IISurabaya in improving vocabulary. And then, it is also intended to describe howthe students employ the strategies in improving their vocabulary.
Vocabularylearning strategies are particular strategies that are employed by the studentsonly to acquire vocabulary. There are many classifications that are created byresearchers on vocabulary learning strategies. Mostly the classification ofvocabulary learning strategies is generally taken from language learningstrategies despite there are some additions in the list of the strategies. Itis empowered by statement of Pacivic Takac (2008:59) that is lists ofvocabulary learning strategies are usually a part of general strategiesclassifications which show that many multi-propose strategies may be used invocabulary learning.Thefirst classification is proposed by Gu and Johnson as cited in Fithriyah(2012:23). Gu and Johnson employ strategies that are existed in Oxford’slanguage learning strategies such as metacognitive, cognitive, and memorystrategies.
Then, Gu and Johnson create one strategy, namely activationstrategies, to be added in their taxonomy of vocabulary learning strategies. Itmeans there are four strategies that are proposed by Gu and Johnson.Thesecond classification is recommended by Nation (2001:217). Nation creates hisown classification of vocabulary learning strategies into three groups:planning, sources, and processes. Planningvocabulary learning strategies involve deciding on where to focus attention,how to focus the attention, and how often to give attention to the item(Nation, 2001:218). Sourcesnecessitate the students to get information about the vocabulary (ibid, 219). And processes involve ways of making vocabulary knowledge be rememberedand be available for use (ibid, 221).Thelast classification is recommended by Schmitt in Schmitt (2000:133).
Schmitt(2000:132) states that commonly used VLS seem to be simple memorization,repetition, and taking notes on vocabulary. The three of the used VLS areexisted in the Oxford’s classification of language learning strategies as well.In other words, the classification that is proposed by Schmitt refers to Oxford’staxonomy despite there is a new category of specific strategies that is addedin the list of vocabulary learning strategies, namely determination strategies.Schmitt(2000:133) concludes Schmitt’s classification of vocabulary learning fromfifty-eight strategies into thirty-one strategies. All of the strategies aredivided into two main groups.
The first group is the strategies that are usedto find the meaning of a new word when detecting it at first time (ibid, 134). These strategies consist ofdetermination strategies and social strategies. And, the second group is thestrategies that are used to empower knowledge of the new word when detecting itagain (ibid).
These strategiescontains of social, memory, cognitive, and metacognitive strategies. Because ofthe Schmitt’s taxonomy are more complete categorization and the easiest to beunderstood, the researcher uses the theory as a basis of this research to bepresented. Strategy Group Strategy Strategies for the discovery of a new word’s meaning Determination Strategies 1. Analyze part of speech 2. Analyze affixes and roots 3. Check for L1 cognate 4. Analyze any available pictures or gestures 5. Guess meaning from textual context 6.
Use a dictionary (bilingual or monolingual) Social Strategies 1. Ask teacher for a synonym, paraphrase, or L1 translation of new word 2. Ask classmates for meaning Strategies for consolidating a word once it has been encountered Social Strategies 1. Study and practice meaning in a group 2.
Interact with native speakers Memory Strategies 1. Connect word to a previous personal experience 2. Associate the word with its coordinates 3.
Connect the word to its synonyms and antonyms 4. Use semantic maps 5. Image word form 6. Image word’s meaning 7.
Use Keyword Method 8. Group words together to study them 9. Study the spelling of a word 10. Say new word aloud when studying 11. Use physical action when learning a word Cognitive Strategies 1. Verbal repetition 2. Written repetition 3.
Word lists 4. Put English labels on physical objects 5. Keep a vocabulary notebook Metacognitive Strategies 1. Use English-language media (songs, movies, etc.
) 2. Use spaced word practice (expanding rehearsal) 3. Test oneself with other tests 4. Skip or pass new word 5. Continue to study word over time Source: Schimitt (2000:134).Table 1: Schmitt’sVocabulary Learning Strategies Thisresearch applies descriptive qualitative design which aims to describe theobjective of the research.
The subjects of the research are students of fifthgrade at SDN Kebraon II Surabaya which consist of seventeen female and elevenmale students. Meanwhile, the object of this research is any information relateto kinds of learning strategies and the application of them. The techniques ofdata collection were used in this research were observation and questionnaire.Observation which was used in this research is passive participationobservation. The observation was conducted by note taking in the classroom.
During the observation, questionnaire was conducting. The questionnaire wasconducted by translating the questions in subjects’ mother tongue, namelyBahasa Indonesia. The data analysis used in this research was the interactivemodel analysis from Myles and Huberman that consisted of data reduction, datadisplay, and conclusion.Findingand DiscussionInthis research, it is found from both of the observation and the questionnairethat there are twenty one strategies from thirty one strategies of Schmitt’swhich used by the fifth grade students at SDN Kebraon II Surabaya. The findingsin this research are concluded in two tables.
Table 2 aims to show the kind ofstrategies which are used by the students in improving vocabulary and table 3aims to show the rank of the strategies which are used by the students invocabulary learning. No. The Kinds of Strategies Used 1 Analyzing part of speech 2 Analyzing any available pictures 3 Guessing meaning from textual context 4 Using a dictionary 5 Asking teacher for a synonym, paraphrase, or L1 translation of new word 6 Asking classmates for meaning 7 Studying and practicing meaning in a group 8 Connecting word to a previous personal experience 9 Connecting the word to its synonyms and antonyms 10 Image word form 11 Image word’s meaning 12 Studying the spelling of a word 13 Saying new word aloud when studying 14 Using physical action when learning a word 15 Verbal repetition 16 Written repetition 17 Keeping a vocabulary notebook 18 Using English-language media (songs, movies, etc.
) 19 Testing oneself with other tests 20 Skipping or passing new word 21 Continuing to study word over time Table 2: Kindsof strategies are used by fifth grade students Table2 indicates that among those twenty one strategies, the most used by thestudents is Memory strategies. In order to ease in analyzing the kinds ofstrategies are used by the students, it is created a rank of the strategy usedfrom the most used to the least used (see Table 3.2). There were somestrategies which employed by the whole of students in the fifth grade, namely analyzing part of speech, analyzing picture, using dictionary, studyingthe spelling of word, verbalrepetition, keeping a vocabularynotebook, and using physical action.And there is a strategy is employed by a few students, namely connecting a word to its synonyms andantonyms. Strategy Used Number of Users 1. Analyzing part of speech 28 2. Analyzing any available pictures 28 3.
Guessing meaning 25 4. Using a dictionary 28 5. Asking teacher 26 6. Asking classmates for meaning 25 7. Studying and practicing in a group 6 8. Connecting word to a previous personal experience 12 9. Connecting the word to its synonyms and antonyms 4 10.
Image word form 22 11. Image word’s meaning 22 12. Studying the spelling of a word 28 13. Saying new word aloud when studying 23 14.
Using physical action 28 15. Verbal repetition 28 16. Written repetition 8 17.
Keep a vocabulary notebook 28 18. Using English-language media 23 19. Testing oneself with other tests 18 20. Skipping or passing new word 10 21. Continuous to study word over time 22 Most strategies are used repeatedly by the studentsuntil the strategies become a habit for them in the learning process. Analyzingpart of speech, analyzing picture, using a dictionary,spelling of word, using physical action, verbal repetition,and keep a vocabulary notebook are kinds of strategies which wereemployed by the students in almost of each meeting of English subject. Theteacher regarded that these strategies as drilling for the students to improvetheir vocabularies in language learning.Asbe known, there are twenty one kinds of strategies are identified through the observationand the questionnaire.
These strategies are divided by two parts, namelyobservable strategies and unobservable strategies. The questionnaire is neededto find out the kind of strategies which are unobservable in the classroom. Theapplication of analyzing part of speech,analyzing pictures, using a dictionary, asking teacher, askingclassmates, studying and practicingin group, connecting word to synonymsand antonyms, studying the spellingword, saying word aloud, using physical action, verbal repetition, and keep a vocabulary notebook is includedin the observable strategies, and the rest of the application of the strategiesis unobservable strategies. Oxford (1990:194) states that “there are manylanguage learning strategies that cannot be observed”. Guessing meaning, connectingword to previous experience, imageword form, image word’s meaning, written repetition, using English-language media, testingoneself with other tests, skipping orpassing new word, and continuing tostudy over time are included as kinds of unobservable strategies in thisresearch because they refer to mental process and are invisible.ConclusionsThereare twenty one kinds of strategies are used by the fifth grade students at SDNKebraon II Surabaya. The most of strategies are employed by all of the studentsin the classroom because the teacher made the strategies as a habit for thestudents in improving their vocabularies in English subject.
Bothinstruments in this research (observation and questionnaire) are effectivetools to gather information on learning strategies in improving vocabulary ofthe students. Based on the observation, however, the students’ learning isinfluenced by the teacher’s teaching techniques. If the teacher asked thestudents to note an unfamiliar word, they would note it immediately. Thestudents also tended to repeat the teacher when she asked to. The orders of theteacher seemingly become a habit for the student to be conducted automatically.Basedon the discussions, it could be found some unobservable strategies which areused by the students in improving vocabulary, namely guessing meaning, connectingword to previous experience, imagingword form, imaging word’s meaning,written repetition, using English-language media, testing oneself with other tests, skipping or passing new word, and continue to study the word over time.
These strategies are unobservable because they refer to mental process andinvisible. The application of usingEnglish-language media actually could be observed but this strategy was notfound during observation in the classroom so that it is included inunobservable strategy in this research. In addition, the factors whichinfluence the learning process in this research were variables and could not beavoided. The factors of teaching and learning setting, environment, culture,learning style, and motivation which used by each student in this research aregreatly influenced the strategy used and strategy choice of the students invocabulary learning.