Abstract usage of smartphones by higher learning students for

  Abstract – Adoption of smartphone by students of higherlearning has been a global phenomenon in recent years. It is more than anintegral part of adolescents’ daily lives and has become the most popular formof electronic communication. Infact, the smartphone has turned from atechnological tool to a social tool. Smartphones and tablets play a very significant rolein higher learning student’s information seeking behaviour in meeting theirlearning and research needs. This paper explores the impact of smartphones on academic performance ofhigher learning students.

The study revealed highlevel of awareness about the usage of smartphones by higher learning studentsfor their academic works. Results showcases that smartphones have tremendousimpact on their higher education. Especially with easy internet access and highspeed browsing as it saves time and money rather than  going to cybercafé/college library. Moreover,lack of experts who are technically strong on repairs during fault occurence,operational difficulties, high cost of data subscription from service providersand fragility are the major problems that are encountered while using smartphones.This study aims in finding out therelationship between smartphone usage and academic performance among studentsof higher learning.

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  The study involveddata collation based on description of the phone usage habit such as browsingfrequency, information sourced, sites visited, and examining the effect of smartphoneson students’ academic related activities. The hours spent on the phones bystudents were also gauged and compared with one another focusing on studies andlearning perspectives respectively.  Keywords: Smartphones,Student academic activities, Higher learning students, academic performance I. INTRODUCTION                 Learning is imperativefor growth and in today’s era the gadgets become a supplement to add value forlearning activities. Invariably the students are those who either become abeneficiary if they use the gadgets in appropriate manner or become a trap ifused   inappropriately. Thisstudy as indicated previously focuses on the impact of smartphone among thestudents who takers of higher education and the relative impact on academicperformance.  A mobile phone is an electronic device used for two-wayradio telecommunication over a cellular network of base stations known as cellsites (as defined by  VijayakumaranNair.K & Vinod Chandra S.

S, 2014).Many definitions of mobile phonesvalidates the point that its existence in the world was for emergency purposebut over the time the usage has taken varied purposes. If students havea mobile phone, then it is easy to contact anyone at their needs. For instance,if a student is in danger, he/she can contact their parents for rescue andsafeguard themselves. Likewise, a student with a phone can contact police atany harmful situation, or contact fire brigade if they find fire somewhere, oreven they can call any useful departments on their needs.

Therefore, mobilephone is one of the best solutions for any emergency situations. Mobile phones have become an essential part of anyone’s dayto day life since 1990s. As cell phones have become more available, they areincreasingly owned and used by college/university students as well.The aim of this researchis to assess the impact of mobile phones in learning as they enhance students’learning in different ways. Smartphones easily promote collaborative anddifferent types of learning through their wireless connection to the internet.Their adoption in learning processes by the higher institution management asstudent-learning and communication device tools is useful. Taking a step ahead,the impact of mobile learning on students’ learning behaviours and performancehave also been highlighted in recent research (Wand, Minjuan et al 2009). Mobilephones motivate students in a classroom environment to be more engaged to thelesson promoting learner-centred participation.

This indicates the dynamicsupport that the Smartphone has brought to students’ learning practice.   2.  Literature ReviewThe survey conducted by D. North,K. Johnston, and J. Ophoff (2014) showcased few signs of addiction torespondent’s mobile phones. Their study explored the use and role of mobile phones among SouthAfrican university students. The focused on four main categories to examine thestudents’ mobile phone use were namely  a) reasons to use mobile phones b) pattern ofmobile phone use c)purchasing factors d) behaviour-related issues.

 Differences in mobile phone use bygender were found, with female students showing increased mobile phone use forsafety and socializing, interest in brand and trends, as well as signs ofaddiction. They found that Males and females differ significantly in some areas of mobilephone use.A recent study conducted by(Gretchen Krebs, 2012) shows that smartphones have a huge impact on studentachievement. Skeptically, including some parents, worry about kids wasting timein class, but so far the benefits of allowing personal technology in schoolsoutweigh the risks. A research conducted byH.M.

Abuhassna and I.M.H. Amin indicates the differences due to age and genderdo not appear to be particularly significant; most significant differencesappear to be due to the mobile devices used or technologies available.

The useor not of certain technologies like social networking among students is highcompared to downloading podcast or searching for answers during examinations. According to (M. J. Stollak, et al,2011) students who have smartphones were more likely to both access socialnetworks and spend time in chatting with others. From an educational point ofview, student can enhance their academic performance level by watching onlineresources and  professors may have to bewary of assigning project works involving social media to students as some mayhave an advantage in completing the work than others.(P.

Jubien, 2013)  in her qualitative study  concludes that graduate students combinetheir personal lives with their student lives influenced by the use ofsmartphones. This finding can be understood as a statement that students canhave a classroom at home or wherever making use of communication andeducational applications offered by smartphones. she also mentions another  finding about how smartphones are influencingand changing educational practices.

For example, changes in the way to gatherinformation, to receive instructions from teachers, to do homework, tocollaborate with classmates, among others. The independent variable namely age becomes an importantfactor to be considered to gauge the impact of cell phone usage among studentsand in addition the age being at the level of adolescence is very criticalwhich has been postulated by (Elkind, 1967), in his theory. As the theoryfocuses on adolescent egocentrism, pointed out heightened self-consciousnessduring adolescence. The theory highlights that the adolescence stage iscritical because of authority, unwillingness to accept and quick to find faultwith others which leads seeing from one’s own perspective alone and not beingempathetic which has been conducted among students of the University of Ibadan.Similarly, his study also showcases that ostentatious mode of using anddisposing of the internet enabled phones at will, in order to be abreast ofcurrent trends which validates his point that today’s students are more ofattention seekers.

The West African ExaminationCouncil WAEC Chief Examiner Report, 2014 has shown the data from the TarabaState that most of the students fail English Language and Mathematics.  This may be partly attributed to high usageof Mobile Phone telecommunication gadgets and student spend more time in mobilephone usage instead  of concentratingtheir classroom work. The free night calls, chatting, instant messaging, socialnetworking and exam malpractices etc are greatly influencing the student’sacademic performance.M.

Tayseer, et al(2014) proposed aresearch article titled  “SocialNetwork: Academic and Social Impact on College Students. ” and  found that there is a correlation between thestudents GPAs and their frequent usage of social networks like twitter, facebook. They also found that many of their respondents do not use social sites tolook for academic related information; however, many of them support the ideaof having online learning. Another finding showed that the students tend to usesocial networks like Face book and Twitter in socialpurposes rather than the academic ones.Thiswork concentrates on finding the Impact of smartphoneusage on academic performance of higher learning students in virudhunagardistrict which includes 12 Arts and science colleges, 12 Engineering Collegesand one deemed university. 3. METHODOLOGYThe subjects of the study included students from the Virudhunagar.

Quantitative research method was adopted and data were treated accordingly. Thepopulation of the study comprised of 40% of the students from the variousinstitutions during the year 2016. This constituted to the sample for thestudy. The data obtained for the survey was collected between October andNovember 2016 by questionnaire method. Closed-ended questions were adopted whichin-turn were interpreted and analysed. A total of 85 copies of questionnairewere distributed to students of the various institutions including those fromthe various departments of which 80nos were returned with a response rate of88.9%.

The returned copies of questionnaire were analyzed using percentage andfrequency count.  4. Research DesignThe design was such as to trace vital predictive relationship anddegrees of association among variables. In order to analyze the informationcollected, the sampling method of research design was adopted. Simple randomsampling method is adopted for data collection.Simple Random Sampling (SRS) is a simple random sample of a givensize; all such subsets of the frame are given an equal probability.Furthermore, any given pair of elements has the same chance of selection as any other such pair. This minimizes biasand simplifies analysis of results.

In particular, the variance betweenindividual results within the sample is a good indicator of variance in theoverall population, which makes it relatively easy to estimate the accuracy ofresults.The study population consisted of all higher learning students ofthe Virudhunagar District, Tamil Nadu State. Thus students were randomlyselected on campus to administer the questionnaire. Henceforth it is noted thatthe findings of the study will have equal applicability to other students inthe schools. The survey questionnaire was accordingly, administered physicallyand taken back immediately and some after few days. This is dependent on the choice of the individual making up thesample size.

A self -administered process whereby the respondent himself readsthe questions and records answer without the assistance of an interviewer. Thequestionnaire was designed to collect relevant information the questions werenumbered for easy references and arranged so that the respondents canunderstand easily the reason and important attached each question.The form of questionnaire used provided on easy quick way ofcollecting objective information from primary sources without necessaryallowing the respondents to strain his or her brain for answers. The contentvalidity ensured of the validity of the study. Coincidently, test-retest methodwas also used in this study in order to test the reliability, out of fortyquestionnaire returned, 15 questions were marked for test-retest. 5.RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONSBased on the data collected 60% of the studentsreported that they have android mobile with internet connection and have theinternet enabled phones.

Around 90% of them have been actively using theinternet mobile services to surf and browse the net. The following figure showsthe analysis of browsing frequency of respondents. Data was collected around373 students. Among them the 223 students having mobile phones with netconnection and 200 students actively used internet mobile services to surf andbrowse the net.Table 1: Showing average hoursper day spent on both academic and social communication by respondents  Table1  Average Hours Spent Per Day   Total Hours Spent Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent less than 2 hours 55 27.

5 27.5 27.5 2 to 5 hours 58 29 29 56.5 Valid  5 to 7 hours 68 34 34 90.

5 more than 7 hours 19 9.5 9.5 100 200 100 100    According tothe table above, the average hours spent on usage of smartphone by majority ofthe respondents (34%) lies on 5 -7 hours per day which is too much for studentsto spend those hours on academic activities rather than non -academic issueswhich eventually improves the academic performance because the time needed bystudent to concentrate on his/her studies is almost occupied by academicinteractions like online materials, registering online courses. The informationon the table 1 above can also be presented in figure 1 below.Table 2: Showing the use of smartphone    Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid  Academic 110 55.0 55.0 82.

5 Non Academic 65 32.5 32.5 32.5 Both 25 12.5 12.

5 100.0   200 100.0 100.0    The information in the above table can also be presented in a pie chartshown below: As it can beshown above, the majority of respondents responded positively on the use of smartphonefor academic purposes(55 %) like sharing of materials or notes provided bylecturers/instructors compared to 32.5% who use their smartphone for nonacademic purposes (32.5%) like communications, charting with friends browsingsome social news for celebrities. So the abovetestament shows that most of students in higher learning institutions tends touse smartphones for academic purpose than non-academic purpose which let themto improve the quality and updated learning and increase the concentrations inclass when instructor/lecturer is giving his/her lectures and this causes thebetter result in academic performance.

This is also analysed with the help ofChi Square test. Hypothesis: H0: there is nosignificant relationship between the usage of phones for academic purposes and non academic purposes.H1: there is significantrelationship between the usage of phones for academic purposes and non academic purposes.Table 3: Showing the browsing frequency of smartphone foracademic and non academic purposes:  Browsing Frequency Academic Non Academic Total low 25 43 68 Medium 35 20 55 High 63 14 77 123 77 200  Table:4 – Computation of Test Statistical for Academic PurposeCompared to non academic purposes Browsing Frequency Responses O E O-E (O-E)2 (O-E)2/ E Academic Low 25 41.

82 16.82 282.91 6.77 Medium 35 33.83 1.17 1.37 0.

04 High 63 47.36 15.64 244.61 5.16 Non Academic Low 43 26.18 16.82 282.91 10.

81 Medium 20 21.18 -1.18 1.39 0.07 High 14 29.65 -15.65 244.92 8.

26 Calculated Value 31.11  Where E stands for expected value and O is the observed valueX^2 =? ?(O –E )^2 /E = 31.108 (H1)X^2 table value = (r –1)( C- 1) = (3-1)(2- 1) = 2 X 1 = 22 at 0.05 = 5.

991 (H0)  Conclusion: Since theX^2 calculated value of 31.108 is greater than the X^2 table value of 5.991.Hence, we reject H0 and accept H1. There is significant relationship betweenthe usages of the mobile for academic purposeslike sharingof materials or notes provided by lecturers/instructors compareto non academic purposes like chattingon Facebook, Whatsapp and BBM.

Discussion of Findings From the analysis of result in table above, the following findings weremade during the research; ? 213 questionnaires were administered; 200 were collected while 13 wererejected because of incomplete source of information. ? Most of the respondent expressed their academic performance was improveddue to the proper usage of mobile phones. ? Most of the respondent believed that the biggest issue in mobile phoneusage is the addiction to usage of social network. ? Most of the respondent believed that the students use their mobile phoneson academic network (using it to learn eBooks) than using it to social network.So we concluded that if the use of mobile phone is managed and properlyharnessed, it would definitely improve the academic performance of students.

 6.Conclusion  Based on the chi square test, it is observedthat there is no significant relationship affecting the academic performance ofstudents in using smartphones.  Data wascollected from students around Virudhunagar district. The relationship between smartphoneusage and academic activities among higher learning students was found.  Each and every technology has its ownadvantages and disadvantages for students and mobile phone is one of them.Students, who passed in first class, must be gained some extra knowledge andsurely which is from the internet.

Before the library helps the student to gainsome extra knowledge and now the whole library is in the student’s pocket as amobile phone.  In this study data bothDescription of the phone usage habit such as Browsing frequency, Informationsourced, Sites visited and etc., were collected and found that there is nosignificant relationship affecting the academic performance of students inusing smartphones. RECOMMENDATIONSØ Further study may be undertaken as to the specific extent when can smartphoneusage can be disruptive of learning processes and detrimental to studies.Ø  The professors should give orientation onthe use of smartphones especially for information to maximize their use as anaid to learning processes.Ø  College Administration may create a hubwherein texts messages and pictures can be sent twenty-four seven (24/7) for asafe campus.

Ø  A mobileapp may be generated to monitorthe students’ behaviour on Smartphone usage to exhibit the accurate results.7.References:References: 1D.

North, K. Johnston, and J.Ophoff, “The Use of Mobile Phones by South African UniversityStudents,” Issues in InformingScience and Information Technology, vol. 11, 2014.2http://www.deseretnews.

com/article/865566925/Smartphones-smarter-students.html?pg=all.3H. M. Abuhassna and I. M.

H.Amin, “students feedback and perception regarding mobile phoneapplications at the faculty of education in-UPM.”4https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolescent_egocentrism5M. J.

Stollak, A. Vandenberg, A.Burklund, and S.

Weiss, “Getting social: The impact of social networkingusage on grades among college students,” in Proceedings from ASBBS annual conference, 2011, pp. 859-865.6P. Jubien, “Shape Shifting Smartphones:Riding the Waves in Education,” CanadianJournal of Learning and Technology, vol. 39, p.

n2, 2013.7 Twum, R. (2011) Students’ Questionnaire on Mobile PhoneUse in Learning(SQMPUL). Kenyatta University, Kenya8M. Tayseer, F. Zoghieb, I.

Alcheikh,and M. N. Awadallah, “Social Network: Academic and Social Impact onCollege Students.”9P. A. Kirschner and A. C. Karpinski, “Facebook® andacademic performance,” Computers in human behavior, vol.

26, pp. 1237-1245, 2010.10J.

Lee, B. Cho, Y. Kim, and J. Noh, “Smartphone Addictionin University Students and its Implication for Learning,” in EmergingIssues in Smart Learning, ed: Springer, 2015, pp. 297-305.