Abstract Nancy Kassebaum The present society is not only

Abstract

At present initiatives are taken towards creating a
digitally empowered society. The number of technology driven citizens is
greatly increasing compared to the previous decade. Initiatives are taken both
by the Government and the private sectors to provide education through digital
platform. Many e-resources are available for learning as well as for teaching.
This paper brings out some of the available e-resources and the initiatives
driven by the Government of India. Also this raises a question whether all the
Teacher Education institutions are equipping the future teachers to utilize
these resources towards preparing globally competent citizens.

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Key
words: E-resources, Teacher Education, Government
initiatives.

Introduction

“There
can be infinite uses of computers and of new age technology, but if teachers
are not able to bring them into the classroom and make it work, then it fails.”
– Nancy Kassebaum

The present
society is not only a knowledge based society but technology driven
society.  The growing generation is
intelligently arrogant and what they need is multiple skills. The labour
markets demand higher order thinking skills from the people who step into it.
Therefore to develop a global citizen and to foster these skills the teachers
must be competent and must also be equipped properly. There are plenty of
resources available around and a proficient teacher must be able to grab the
opportunities to develop his or her expertise. This paper brings some of the
e-resources available in general and also that provided by the Government of
India. Also it leaves a question to the readers whether all the teachers and
Teacher Education institutions and the future teachers are aware of this and
are equipped to utilize this.

E-resources – an introduction

E-resource
or electronic resource is an information resource which can be accessed through
the use of a computer system. It provides information through an electronic
platform. The information provided are in different forms like numerical,
graphical, text bases,  images, sounds,
music, maps, electronic journals, etc. Over the past years many new techniques
have been developed to create documents and distribute it in electronic form
and therefore there is umpteen number of e-resources are available.

Basically
there are two types of e-resources: online e-resources and offline e-resources.
On-line e-resources include e-library, e-journals, e-books, web sites, online
databases in different digital formats, online-courses like MOOC courses, some
institutional repositories, e-thesis and dissertations, etc.

Off-line
resources could be CD ROM, off-line digital audio technology, Microsoft office
Applications, offline information stores like eGranary, e-dictionaries,
training software. It can also be treated as information by remote access and
information available by direct access.

Literature review

Omotayo
(2010) conducted a study to know how far around 245 electronic journals were
used and he reported that 37.35% used weekly and 41.63% used monthly, 13.88% bi-monthly  around 8% used daily as well 8%  occasionally.

Adegbore
(2011) identified the heavy use of e-journals and recommended that libraries
should improve in the subscriptions of e- journals and also in their permission
to access.

Thanuskodi
(2012) found that out of the ten e-journal sources the most preferred one by
the respondents was the Highwire Press database.

Nithya.J and Malathi V.A.
(2017) adopted  a survey method and
studied  the awareness of the e-resources
among B.Ed  student teachers with a
sample of 200 B.Ed Students and concluded that majority of them have only a
moderate level of awareness towards e-resources.

Some e-resources available

To start
with everyone is aware that there are many online search engines available like
Google, Yahoo, Bing, and AOL.com. Ask.com, etc, Baidu (used in China) a through
these one can access any type of resource according to the need and nature of the
information.

Electronic databases

Electronic
databases are electronic collection of resources which can be accessed. There
are Full-text databases and Indexes or Bibliographic databases.  Topical
searching across resources in multiple formats (including multidisciplinary
searches) can be done.

E-journals

E-journals
are periodical publications in electronic format in the internet.   Articles may be viewed or downloaded. E-journals
are available to all the fields of Education. 
E-journals
have viewer-friendly formats like HTML and printer-friendly formats as PDF.Ex. International Journal of Humanities and Social
Sciences, journal of Science, Humanities and Arts.

E-Books

E-books
from Elgar, Elsevier, Bloomsbury Collection, Sage publications, Oxford University
Press Handbooks are great resources for teachers.

INFLIBNET

Information
and Library Network is an Autonomous Inter-university Centre of UGC. Working
collaboratively with Indian University libraries it shares library resources and
information services among various academic and research institutions.

ERIC

Educational
Resource Information Centre allows unlimited access to 1.3 million and above bibliographic
records of articles from varied journals. This includes conference papers,
policy papers, technical reports, research syntheses and other education
related materials.

Online magazines and newspapers

There
are many online newspapers and magazines as resources which can be easily accessed.
Some are Dailyhunt, Firstpost https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Media_of_India

E-resources – Initiatives by Government of India

National
Digital Library (NDL)

It is an initiative of MHRD.  It is a repository which contains
informational content from different institutions.  More than sixty types of learning resources
are there ranging from primary to post graduate level in more than  seventy languages covering domains like
Science, Technology, Humanities and social sciences and Agriculture.  It covers a range of more than seven lakh
books by 3 lakhs of authors and more than 3 lakh articles which is a great
resource.

Spoken Tutorial Project

Talk
to a Teacher is an indigenously built multi-modal e-learning platform developed
by Amrita e-learning Research Lab. Spoken Tutorial Project is an initiative of
the above said launched by MHRD. This trains students and teachers in IT
related topics to develop their IT skills.

Digital Library Inflibnet

It
is an initiative of UGC to bring a qualitative change in the academic libraries
of India. It is an initiative to provide access to scholarly e-resources and
databases in all subject disciplines for the benefit of the academic community
of India. It facilitates great access to high quality e-resources to teachers
and students of the country in order to improve teaching, learning and
research.

Oscar++

Open Source Courseware Animations Repository is a project
which provides a repository of interactive animations and simulations that is
web-based which are referred to as learning objects (LOs). Teachers and
Students can view them or download them according to the need.

Virtual Learning Environment

VLE is an online environment of e-resources that caters to different
disciplines related to undergraduate and postgraduate level. It was initiated
by Institute of Life-Long Learning of the University of Delhi. VLE contains a
multimedia repository in the form of audio, video and short films which exposes
students to upcoming technologies in pedagogy.

Aakash Educational Portal

This
project developed by IIT Bombay helps teachers to learn the best practices and
also empowers them through workshops following a blended approach of technology
and innovative pedagogy.

Indian
initiatives of open educational resources

Open Educational
Resources in India can be classified as audio-visual and textual OER with a few
initiatives  targeted towards school
students many targeted towards technical and vocational education and training
, tertiary education and lifelong learning. Some of them are : National Programme
on Technology Enhanced Learning (NPTEL) , Learning Object Repository of the
Consortium for Educational Communication (CEC), eGyanKosh of the Indira Gandhi
National Open University (IGNOU), Online textbooks provided by the National
Council of Educational R e s e a r c h a n d T r a i n i n g ( N C E R T ), National
Science Digital Library (NSDL) provided by the National Institute of Science
Communication and Information Resources  and Vidyanidhi is a digital library and e-portal
to access dissertations and theses. Other than the above mentioned there are
e-resources available in different forms like, institutional repositories, open
access resources & journals, and digital libraries.

Conclusion

Over the past few years digital technology has been evolving
in India. Most of the students of the current generation are well-versed in
using the latest electronic gadgets, therefore teachers are expected to switch
over to innovative methods of teaching pertaining to their needs. Though there
seems to be an increase in use of such digital technologies in education field,
are all the teaching fraternity in both rural as well as urban sectors are
equipped to use these advancements in technology. The question is whether all
the Teacher Education institutions in the country are preparing the future
teachers with all the skills required to use the available e-resources for the
benefit of the students and to prepare them to compete as global citizens.

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