is a communicable disease which is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis
bacteria. This bacterium Causes lesions in the lungs, known as tubercles. It influences
lungs in 80 percent cases. However, it also can affect other body parts such
as, abdominal cavity, joints, meninges, female reproductive organs, skin. Proper
treatment and medication can treat, prevent and cure TB.
1882, German Microbiologist Robert Koch identified Mycobacterium tuberculosis
bacterium which causes tuberculosis(TB). This bacterium founded in both humans and
animals. It causes lesions in the lungs which is known as tubercles (Aldridge,
2016). TB is contiguous disease.
However, it can be cured, prevent and treated.
TB affects one-third of the world’s population. It is the
most preeminent cause of death and second leading cause of death from communicable
disease worldwide. In 2013, 9 million new cases of TB were reported. The case
detection rate was around 64% because around 3.3 million people who affected
from TB was not reported or not diagnosed. At the
same time, 1.1 million people were estimated to have tuberculosis- human
immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection (Dheda, Barry & Maartens, 2016). TB
is particularly found in Africa and Asia. As a result of, 86% of TB cases reported
in these areas (Kakchapati, Gyawali, Jha , 2012). the burden of
TB is Multidrug-resistance TB(MDR-TB) which is the result of inadequate
treatment or irregular medications. Resistance to both isoniazid and rifampicin
is known as MDR-TB. Morbidity and mortality rate of MDR-TB is higher (Kakchapati
et al., 2012).
Types of TB
90% people infected by Mycobacterium
tuberculosis bacteria remains asymptomatic and they can not spread an infection
to others known as latent infection (Zumla, Raviglione, Hafner & Reyn,
2013). Approximately 10% of latent infection can progress to active infection
if not treated properly on time. Active infection has symptoms. It can transmit
the infection to others. There are another two types of tuberculosis, pulmonary
and extra pulmonary TB which is categorized on the basis of human organs. In pulmonary
TB the lungs is affected. TB which affects others parts such as, skin, female
reproductive organs, meninges, the abdominal cavity is known as extra pulmonary
TB. In diagnosed cases 85% of Tb is pulmonary Tb whereas 15% of Tb is
mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria is the
main cause of TB. It can spread by droplet. When the infected person exhales,
cough, sneeze and laughs, the bacilli released into the air. If the healthy
person inhales the air they can infected. On the other hand, TB is considered
as less infectious in compare with other infectious disease (Cooper, odle
, 2014). overcrowding homelessness, malnutrition, HTV infection may
increase the risk of TB .
90% of people who is infected with M.
tuberculosis remains asymptomatic. Despite, active pulmonary TB have symptoms
like sputum production, chronic cough, appetite loss, weight loss, weakness,
fever, night sweats and hemoptysis (Zumla et al.,2013). Fluid may collect in
pleural cavity which is known as pleural effusion may cause difficulty in breathing
and shortness of breathing. Recurrent cough occur for weeks to months (Cooper
et al., 2014).
The tuberculin skin test and the interferon-gamma
release assay can use for diagnosis of latent infection and risk groups.
However, these test is not relevant for active TB (Zumla et al., 2013). The
culture and sputum microscopy is standard methods to diagnose active TB (Zumla et
There are different drugs which are use for
the treatment of TB. They are Isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide.
However, the usage of drugs is it differs for latent and active TB as well as MDR-TB.
Person who is suffering from latent Tb and have increased risk to developed
active TB. Preventive treatment need to apply for the patients who suffering
from latent TB. Similarly, in latent phase isoniazid 300mg daily given for six
months and recommended to continue until nine months if its co infected with
HIV infection. Directly observed therapy (DOT) is used to control MDR-TB by
tuberculosis control programmers which helps to decrease the number of
defaulting therapy (Dheda, 2016). MDR-TB needed long term treatment compare to other
Generally, Bacille-Calmette-Guérin (BCG)
vaccine is used to prevent from TB. BCG is one of the most effective method to
prevent TB during childhood. People infected with HIV a lives in high burden
area with unknown result of tuberculin test and with out active TB recommended
to have isoniazid for at least 6 months as preventive therapy (Zumla et al., 2013). In addition, there are various preventive
measures of TB. In high risk area regular screening program need to do and need
avoid overcrowd and maintain hygiene which can help to prevent TB.