ABSTRACT: a motor and an android application for user

ABSTRACT:

                 A GSM based digital notice board and  a  home
automation  system has a    very
low cost of installation and maintenance. GSM SIM900 is the most popular
standard for mobiles in the world. It presents an SMS based notice board
incorporating the widely used GSM to facilitate the communication of displaying
message on notice board via user’s mobile phone. When the user sends a SMS via
a registered number from his mobile phone, it is received by SIM300 GSM modem
at the receiver’s end. If the user wants to display any message, he can send
the information by SMS and thus update the LCD display accordingly. The  
system consists of a 32-bit ARM  
based   microcontroller   LPC2148,  
GSM SIM900 module,   an LCD, a
motor   and   an android  
application   for   user  
interface    with   the  
hardware.

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Keywords:

1. Introduction

               GSM is only type of cellular
service available. Instead of analog services, GSM was developed as a digital
system using TDMA technology. The main
aim of this paper is to module GSM based wireless smart home and digital notice
board for the development of a system, which uses Mobile technology that keeps
monitoring of the various applications, and will control the operation with
respect to the signal sent by the mobile. For utilization of appliances the new
concept has been thought to manage them remotely by using GSM, which enables
the user to remotely control switching of domestic appliances. Just by dialing
keypad of remote telephone, from where you are calling you can perform ON / OFF
operation of the appliances.

 

 

2. METHODOLOGY

            In this paper we are monitoring and
controlling appliances of home remotely using GSM technology. The required
operating voltage for Microcontroller 89C51 is 5V. Hence the 5V D.C. power
supply is needed by the same. This regulated 5V is generated by stepping down
the voltage from 230V to 12V using step down transformer. Now the step downed
a.c voltage is being rectified by the Bridge Rectifier using 1N4007 diodes. The
rectified a.c voltage is now filtered using a ‘C’ filter. Now the rectified,
filtered D.C. voltage is fed to the Voltage Regulator. This
voltage regulator provides/allows us to have a Regulated constant Voltage which
is of +5V. The rectified filtered and regulated voltage is again filtered for
ripples using an electrolytic capacitor 100?F. Now the output from this section
is fed to 40th pin of 89c51 microcontroller to supply operating
voltage.   The microcontroller 89C51 with Pull up
resistors at Port0 and crystal oscillator of 11.0592 MHz crystal in conjunction
with couple of 30-33pf capacitors  is
placed at 18th & 19th pins of 89c51 to make it work
(execute) properly. Operating voltage for the GSM modem will depends on its
type and an adaptor is provided with the GSM modem set itself. Now to monitor
and control the appliances of home, just we need to send a SMS from remote
telephone to the GSM modem which is present in home. Modem will read this SMS
and forwards to the microcontroller. Now the controller will process this data
and depending upon the message sent it will perform the action. Such that to
operate the lamps in the home controller will gives signals to the
corresponding relays to perform that action and to operate the DC Fan or DC
motor signal is to its respective drivers.

          Like this all the appliances in home can be
controlled by using this GSM technology. If we want to know the status of
appliances in home just a SMS is sent through the GSM modem via network paths
using AT commands to our mobiles which includes the status of the appliances.

3. GSM BASED SMART HOME AND DIGITAL
NOTICE BOARD

The
main aim of this paper GSM based wireless smart home and digital notice board is
to develop a system, which uses Mobile technology that keeps monitoring of the
various appliances, and will control the operation of these appliances with
respect to the signal sent by the mobile. For utilization of appliances the new
concept has been thought to manage them remotely by using GSM, which enables
the user to remotely control switching of domestic appliances. Just by dialing
keypad of remote telephone, from where you are calling you can perform ON / OFF
operation of the appliances. The proposed approach is shown in Figure 1 and it
consists of Microcontroller, MAX 232, GSM, LCD display, power supply, relay,
driver, fan and bulbs.

 

 

 

 

 

 

                 

 

 

 

 

Fig 1 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF GSM BASED
SMART HOME AND DIGITAL NOTICE BOARD

            Micro-controllers
were originally used as components in complicated process-control systems.   However, because of their small size and low
price, Micro-controllers are now also being used in regulators for individual
control loops. In several areas Micro-controllers are now outperforming their
analog counterparts and are cheaper as well. To allow compatibility
among data communication equipment made by various manufactures, an interfacing
standard called RS232 was set by the Electronic Industries Association
(EIA).This RS-232 standard is used in PCs and numerous types of equipment. However,
since the standard was set long before the advent of the TTL logic family, its
input and output voltage levels are not TTL compatible. In RS-232 ,a 1 is
represented by  -3 to -25V,while a 0 bit
is +3 to +25V,making -3 to +3 undefined. For this reason, to connect any RS-232
to a microcontroller system we must use voltage converters such as MAX232 to
convert the TTL logic levels to the RS-232 voltage levels and vice versa. So
here we are using this MAX-232 to have compatibility between the RFID READER
and microcontroller.

            GSM based wireless home appliances monitoring and
control using GSM, which enables the user to remotely control switching of
domestic appliances. Just by dialing keypad of remote telephone, from where you
are calling you can perform ON / OFF operation of the home appliances.  A variable regulated
power supply, also called a variable bench power supply, is one where you can
continuously adjust the output voltage to your requirements. Varying the output
of the power supply is the recommended way to test a project after having
double checked parts placement against circuit drawings and the parts placement
guide. This type of regulation is ideal for having a simple variable bench
power supply. Actually this is quite important because one of the first
projects a hobbyist should undertake is the construction of a variable
regulated power supply. While a dedicated supply is quite handy e.g. 5V or 12V,
it’s much handier to have a variable supply on hand, especially for testing.
Most digital logic circuits and processors need a 5 volt power supply. To use
these parts we need to build a regulated 5 volt source. Usually you start with
an unregulated power supply ranging from 9 volts to 24 volts DC (A 12 volt
power supply is included with the Beginner Kit and the Microcontroller Beginner
Kit.). To make a 5 volt power supply, we use a
LM7805 voltage regulator IC.

The LM7805 is
simple to use. You simply connect the positive lead of your unregulated DC
power supply (anything from 9VDC to 24VDC) to the Input pin, connect the
negative lead to the Common pin and then when you turn on the power, you get a
5 volt supply from the Output pin. LCD is used to display the information about
the current process. A relay is an electrical switch that opens and closes
under control of another electrical circuit. In the original form, the switch
is operated by an electromagnet to open or close one or many sets of contacts.
The schematic representation of GSM based smart home are shown in Figure 2.

                Fig 2 SCHEMATIC DESCRIPTION OF
GSM BASED SMART HOME

Firstly,
the required operating voltage for Microcontroller AT89S52 is 5V. Hence the 5V
D.C. power supply is needed by the same. This regulated 5V is generated by
first stepping down the 230V to 18V by the step down transformer. In the both
the Power supplies the step downed a.c. voltage is being rectified by the
Bridge Rectifier. The diodes used are 1N4007. The rectified a.c voltage is now
filtered using a ‘C’ filter. Now the rectified, filtered D.C. voltage is fed to
the Voltage Regulator. This voltage regulator allows us to have a Regulated
Voltage. In Power supply given to Microcontroller 5V is generated using 7805
and in other two power supply 12V is generated using 7812. The rectified;
filtered and regulated voltage is again filtered for ripples using an
electrolytic capacitor 100?F. Now the output from the first section is fed to
40th pin of AT89S52 microcontroller to supply operating voltage and
from other power supply to circuitry. The microcontroller AT89S52 with Pull up
resistors at Port0 and crystal oscillator of 11.0592 MHz crystal in conjunction
with couple of capacitors of  is placed
at 18th & 19th pins of AT89S52 to make it work
(execute) properly.P0 is connected to
the data pins of the LCD.         P2.5,
P2.6, P2.7 are connected to control pins of the LCD.20th is
connected to GROUND and 40th
is connected to Vcc. The architecture of GSM network is shown in Figure 3.               

                    Fig 3 General architecture of a GSM
network

            A relay is an electrically
operated switch. Current flowing through the coil of the relay creates a
magnetic field which attracts a lever and changes the switch contacts. The coil
current can be on or off so relays have two switch positions and they are double throw (changeover) switches and the figure is shown in Figure 4.

 

 

 

 

 

                        Fig 4 Relay

            Relays
allow one circuit to switch a second circuit which can be completely separate
from the first. For example a low voltage battery circuit can use a relay to
switch a 230V AC mains circuit. There is no electrical connection inside the
relay between the two circuits, the link is magnetic and mechanical. The coil
of a relay passes a relatively large current, typically 30mA for a 12V relay,
but it can be as much as 100mA for relays designed to operate from lower
voltages. Most ICs (chips) cannot provide this current and a transistor is usually used to amplify the small IC current to the
larger value required for the relay coil. The maximum output current for the
popular 555 timer IC is 200mA so these devices can supply relay coils directly
without amplification. The relay’s switch connections are usually labeled COM,
NC and NO:

·        
COM = Common, always connect to this, it is the moving part of the
switch.

·        
NC = Normally Closed, COM is connected to this when the relay coil
is off.

·        
NO = Normally Open, COM is connected to this when the relay coil is on.

Connect to COM and NO if you want
the switched circuit to be on when
the relay coil is on.
Connect to COM and NC if you want
the switched circuit to be on when
the relay coil is off.

The flowchart
of GSM based smart Notice Board  is shown
in Figure 5.

           

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig: 5  FLOW CHART

4.
 IMPLEMENTATION

            The microcontroller receives an SMS through the GSM
module on occurrence of one of the two events: (a) when a notice is sent by a
user through application; (b) user clicks on ON/OFF button in the application. When the SIM inserted in the GSM
module receives a notice as an SMS from a user, it saves the SMS and the data
is transferred to LPC2148 through DB9 port of GSM to usb port of ARM development
board connected by USB to RS232 driver. 
On receiving data from the GSM, LPC2148 sends a write command to the
16*2 alphanumeric LCD followed by transfer of data to the 8 data pins of the
LCD.  The application named Home
Automation is used to send message that gets displayed in the LCD.  On clicking an ON/OFF button, an SMS is
generated and sent by the application Home Automation to the SIM in GSM module.  The GSM module transfers the data to LPC2148
as explained. On receiving the data, LPC2148 sends a signal (logic 0 or logic
1) to the relay driver which turns the motors on/off as per the message. Microcontroller LPC2148 and the GSM
SIM900 module communicate through any one of the two UART devices which are
16C550 present in the LPC2148 chip. In this project, UART0 has been used to
connect to the GSM module. Among all the 64 pins of the microcontroller, pin
P0.0 is the TXD0 (transmit) pin and pin P0.1 is the RXD0 (receive) pin. The
RXD0 and TXD0 pins of LPC2148 are connected to the Tx and Rx of the GSM Module
respectively with jumper wires. The UART is initialized for communication to
happen. The Frequency Of Crystal Oscillator (FOSC) is 12MHz and to maintain a
frequency of 60MHz for the CPU (Fcclk) through Phase Locked Loop (PLL) output,
the multiplier is set as M=5 and the following registers are configured: PLL0CON=0x01
PLL0CFG=0x24 The sequence fed is: PLL0FEED=0Xaa PLL0FEED=0x55. Hence, the peripheral clock frequency
Fpclk is set as Fcclk/4.

After ensuring
connection established, the GSM modem is set to text mode to read the SMS in
text mode otherwise it gets displayed in binary mode. So, the string
“AT+CMGF=1” is send to GSM module which sets the SMS at index 1 in text mode.
Since, it is known that the latest SMS is always stored at index 1, the data
sent is “AT+CMGF=1” where 1 is the index number of the message. Next, in order
to read the message and send it for display the string “AT+CMGR=1” is sent to
GSM. Finally, after the message is read, it is sent to LCD in 4-bit mode and
displayed. 

            The
16*2 LCD has eight data pins and three special pins namely, Read/Write (R/W), Enable
(E) or Register Select(RS). In 8-bit mode, all the eight data lines of LCD are
connected to eight I/O pins of LPC2148 along with three other pins also
connected to the microcontroller but in 4-bit mode, only four data lines are
connected to the microcontroller. Here, 4-bit mode has been used to display

            In 4-bit mode, the data lines D0-D3
of LCD are not connected and D4-D7 are connected to pins P0.19P0.22 of LPC2148.
The R/W, E and RS pins are connected to pins P0.16, P0.17 and P0.18 pins of
LPC2148 respectively. Initially, the LCD is initialized and then the data is
sent to it to get it displayed. RS pin, if high, selects the data register and
LCD interprets any data sent to it as data to be displayed and if RS pin is
low, command register is selected so the data sent to LCD is interpreted as a
command by the LCD. The enable pin is used to enable transfer of command or
data to LCD from microcontroller. The command/data transfer is enabled when E
pin gets a transition from high to low. The R/W pin, if high gives read
operation and gives write operation otherwise.

            For initialization, the pins R/W is
kept low (write), RS is kept low and  command is sent through the 4-bit mode and But
to place the command into command register, E pin is transitioned from high to
low each time a byte is sent to the LCD. The commands sent for initialization
in hexadecimal are, 28H, 20H, 06H, 01H and 80H.The application includes Home
appliance control, Industrial applications, Hotel lights / fans control Shops  and showrooms.

                                                    

                                                   
CONCLUSION

 

The paper GSM
based smart home and digital notice board  has been successfully designed and tested.It has been
developed by integrating features of all the hardware components used. Presence
of every module has been reasoned out and placed carefully thus contributing to
the best working of the unit. Secondly, using highly advanced IC’s and with the
help of growing technology on digital has been successfully implemented. It can decrease use of papers and
hence deforestation can be turned into Afforestation. It can reduce physical
effort of printing- It is cheap and secured for any organizing paper based
notices. it requires to circulate notices regularly and reduces physical effort
as well as ensures energy consumption management for any user. Although only
fan has been driven through the system, in future, other devices like
microwave, washing machine can also be operated while the user is aged.

REFERENCES

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2
H. Elkamchouchi and A. ElShafee, “Design and prototype implementation of sms
based home automation system,” in Electronics Design, Systems and Applications
(ICEDSA), 2012 IEEE International Conference on, Nov 2012, pp. 162–167. 

 3 B. Ghazal, M. Kherfan, K. Chahine, and K.
Elkhatib, “Multi control chandelier operations using xbee for home automation,”
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(TAEECE), 2015 Third International Conference on, April 2015, pp. 107–111. 

4
G. Cao, T. Xu, T. Liu, Y. Ye, and G. Xu, “A gsm-based wireless remote
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D.-M. Han and J.-H. Lim, “Smart home energy management system using ieee
802.15.4 and zigbee,” Consumer Electronics, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 56, no.
3, pp. 1403–1410, Aug 2010. 

 

6
M. S. Khandare and A. Mahajan, “Mobile monitoring system for smart home,” in
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