A loss of sprinting technique. High Speed Treadmill Sprinting

A second method of producing
supramaximal speed running has been the use of downhill sprinting. A study of
Kunz and Kaufman (1981)  analyzed maximal
sprinting on a 3% decline that led to an increase in horizontal velocity of
0.5m/s from level maximal sprinting. This study did not find any increase in
stride rate, only in stride length, so the increased velocity is due to this
factor alone, therefore having minimal effect upon the neural system unlike the
other forms of supramaximal sprinting training. These researches felt that a
greater decline (>3%) would lead to an even longer stride length, resulting
in increased breaking forces and loss of sprinting technique.

High Speed Treadmill Sprinting

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A third method of training at
supramaximal speeds is using a high speed treadmill. A study by Wood (1985)
analyzed the biomechanics of using such a device and found that the overspeed
training effect was primarily focused on the hamstring muscle group. Significant
increases in peak hip extensor and knee flexor torques were recorded
immediately following treadmill training.


Speed can also be improved through
strength training as more muscle mass can produce more force increasing speed

Balance and proprioception


Balance is being able to maintain the correct
distribution of mass to keep upright /stable


Proprioception is being able to identify the
relative position of one’s own body parts and identifying during movement the
strength and effort being employed


Balance is important during everyday life but
more importantly it is required when participating in physical activity.
Balance is important due to the fact that this could either increase other
attributes or limit depending on how much it has been trained.

Relationship between balance and agility-
balance plays a huge part in having good agility as being able to retain centre
of mass can ensure that the athletes can change direction efficiently and
prevent injury

Dynamic balance is very important in
football. Players will require this balance due to the fact that they’re
adjusting body position constantly when looking for scoring opportunities in
the penalty box or trying to mark an opponent closely. Good balance will help
players to keep their shots on target, and to reach and play difficult volley
strikes with accuracy – it will also help to maintain possession when a
defender tries to push you of the ball.


Methods of training

There are many methods of training for
balance and proprioception. Strength training can help balance such as free
weight training as this can help improve stability .

Some methods of training :

Press ups


Side plank

Balance board

One leg balance

Medicine ball exercises




Balance training programs designed to enhance performance might start
with exercises on a stable surface and bipedal stance and progress to unipedal
stance and unstable surfaces (foam mat, tilt board, wobble board, inflated
rubber disc) with eyes open, eyes shut and may then incorporate movements:
tilting, rotating, squatting, hopping, jumping, throwing and catching a ball or
resistance exercises while balancing.42 There have been a number of


into the influence of balance training on athletic performance measures
(Table V). These 

prospective studies have ranged from 2 to 10 weeks and mostly involved
physically active, 

non-elite subjects. It has been found that the addition of a balance
training component to the 

activities of recreational active subjects or physical education
students has resulted in 

improvements in vertical jump12,46, agility46, shuttle run18 and downhill-slalom

It is unclear what portion of the improvements is due to the actual
balance training stimulus 

as opposed to just the increased overall volume of physical conditioning
brought about by the 

inclusion of balance training. It has been proposed that improvement
with balance could 

decrease the proportions of muscles allocated to stabilization and allow
them to contribute 

more to the motive force.12 There are of course activities that would
benefit directly from 

enhanced balance; down-hill slalom skiing involves unpredictable
surfaces in addition to the 

ankle-foot being fixed in the ski boot and unable to make major postural
adjustments.16 The 

evidence supports the notion that balance training can be a worthwhile
adjunct to the usual 

training of non-elite athletes but not in place of other conditioning
such as resistance training. 

When the effectiveness of balance training was compared to resistance
training, it was found 

that resistance training produced superior performance results for jump
height and sprint time.





Power and reaction time


power is the amount of force that can be
exerted in a given space of time


reaction time is the speed which a human can
respond to a stimulus



the function of power is to be able to exert
the required force to complete a task and is improved through strength training
and also improving technique. power is very important in football this could be
kicking the ball throwing the ball or even trying to win a header


reaction time is not as important in football
but is very beneficial to goal keepers as they have to make quick and sharp
decisions based on the opposition attacking this could be them reaction to the
opposition attacking and making sure they’re in the correct position or diving
last minute to save a shot.



Methods of training


Training for power goes hand in hand with the
strength training and is often trained using free weights and plyometrics,
plyometrics are good for explosive power as it requires the athlete to exert
enough force in a short period of time .


Training for reaction time is alt different
than most training. one way to train reaction time is:


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