Transplantation
of encapsulated islet is known as an ideal treatment for diabetic patients that it offers the prospective no need for immunosuppressant
therapy. But despite the efforts of
researchers, so far, they have not been able to provide a barrier to
mask islets completely from the immune system attack. Because the membrane
permeability of these capsules cannot limit the infiltration of the islet self-antigens and pro-inflammatory
cytokines. To enhance the
tolerance of islets against inflammatory condition in site of implantation,
smart surface modification have been proposed to mask islets by physical and
biological barriers.

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