5.1.1 seal the cylinder block to prevent any leakage

5.

1.1 Cylinder Block Cylinder block isthe shell of the engine; the cylinder and piston are present inside thecylinder block. The function of cylinder block is to robustly withstand andfacilitate the combustion of fuel. Inside the cylinder, the fuel and air areignited in the cycles of compression and expansion to drive the engine. The combustionof fuel brings extreme temperature and pressure presenting harsh conditionsthat the cylinder block must be able to with stand. Cooling methods aredesigned for this continuous process supports to extend life and longevity ofcylinder block. The cylinder block is manufactured through casting process ofcast iron. 45 5.

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1.2 Cylinder head The cylinder headis fixed on top of the cylinder block. The function of a cylinder head is toseal the cylinder block to prevent any leakage of air or fuel mixtures from thecylinder and to act as a mount for the ignition system i.e. valve train, sparkplug or fuel injector. Cylinder head is manufactured by casting or forging ofcast iron or aluminum. 45 5.1.

3 Piston  Piston is one ofthe principal parts in the engine. Its function is to use the energy ofexpanding gas in the cylinder to move itself in reciprocating motion. Thepiston is connected to the crankshaft via a connecting rod to transfer itsenergy.

The reciprocating motion of piston creates an imbalance manifesting asvibration of the engine that requires dampeners to absorb the vibration.Mechanical loss is experienced during the transfer of linear motion in pistonto rotational motion in crankshaft.  Asthe energy supplied by the piston is not continuous in nature, the rotation ofthe crankshaft is not smooth. This brings the heavy flywheels into design for smootheningand maintaining constant inertia to the crankshaft by stabilizing the variableirregular energy supply from the engine. Valves and camshaft system presentinside the cylinder head above the engine controls the supply of fuel andremoval of burnt fuel from the cylinder. 45 Pistons are madefrom cast aluminum alloy. Component feature of the piston are the piston headthe top surface of the piston, piston pin bore a hole through the piston,piston pin a hollow shaft for connecting the piston and the connecting rod,skirt the bottom of the piston, piston rings the expandable split ring actingas a seal between the cylinder and the piston, ring grooves the attachment areafor the piston rings and ring lands the sealing surface of the piston ring.45  5.

1.4 Connecting rod The connectingrod connects the piston and the crankshaft. It serves as the medium to transferthe power from the reciprocating motion of piston to the rotating motion ofcrankshaft. The connecting rod is made from steel and aluminum. An error in themanufacturing of connecting rod can cause a disastrous engine failure. The mostcommon connecting rod used in nearly every type of engine is the cast rod, madefrom molding of molten steel. 45 5.1.

5 Crankshaft  The crankshaft isconnected to the connecting rod this is where the engine reciprocating motionof piston is converted to rotatory motion and transferred to the flywheel. Theengine’s crankshaft is commonly made of heavy cast iron. The crankshaft’smaterial has to be strong enough to withstand the everlasting stress itreceives from the constant push and pull from the pistons. 45 5.1.6 Camshaft  The function ofcamshaft is to open and close the inlet and exhaust valves of the engine atsynchronized timing to make the engine run itself smoothly. The perfection intiming is essential to obtain maximum power and efficiency. The camshaft also operatesthe distributor to synchronize spark ignition.

Camshafts are directly connectedwith the engine rotation i.e. the rotation of the crankshaft through a gears orbelt drives. It contains lobes that activate the valve train. In many cases, 2camshafts are present in the engine, one controls the inlet valves and theother controls the exhaust valves. The production of camshaft is by forgingprocess normally made from one piece of steel.

Each cylinder of the engine willbe associated with 2 lobes of the camshaft for the inlet and exhaust valves. Thecamshaft operates the lifters through its lobes; the lifters operate the restof the valve train. The camshaft additionally has one extra lobe for the fuelpump. 45  5.

1.7 Flywheel The crankshaft isattached to the flywheel. The function of flywheel is to provide an inertialmass to store the rotational energy. It is essential as the engine onlydelivers power in power strokes and during the remaining time, the rotation iscarried over by the flywheel. Flywheels assist to provide a smooth powerdelivery as output. The rotational inertia of the flywheel facilitates a slowerminimum unloaded speed. The flywheel also balances the system by its weight androtation.

The clutch or the torque converter is attached to the flywheel wherethe power is further transferred to the wheels. The flywheel is manufacturedthrough casting process. 45