5.1.1 seal the cylinder block to prevent any leakage

5.1.1 Cylinder Block


Cylinder block is
the shell of the engine; the cylinder and piston are present inside the
cylinder block. The function of cylinder block is to robustly withstand and
facilitate the combustion of fuel. Inside the cylinder, the fuel and air are
ignited in the cycles of compression and expansion to drive the engine. The combustion
of fuel brings extreme temperature and pressure presenting harsh conditions
that the cylinder block must be able to with stand. Cooling methods are
designed for this continuous process supports to extend life and longevity of
cylinder block. The cylinder block is manufactured through casting process of
cast iron. 45

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5.1.2 Cylinder head


The cylinder head
is fixed on top of the cylinder block. The function of a cylinder head is to
seal the cylinder block to prevent any leakage of air or fuel mixtures from the
cylinder and to act as a mount for the ignition system i.e. valve train, spark
plug or fuel injector. Cylinder head is manufactured by casting or forging of
cast iron or aluminum. 45


5.1.3 Piston


Piston is one of
the principal parts in the engine. Its function is to use the energy of
expanding gas in the cylinder to move itself in reciprocating motion. The
piston is connected to the crankshaft via a connecting rod to transfer its
energy. The reciprocating motion of piston creates an imbalance manifesting as
vibration of the engine that requires dampeners to absorb the vibration.

Mechanical loss is experienced during the transfer of linear motion in piston
to rotational motion in crankshaft.  As
the energy supplied by the piston is not continuous in nature, the rotation of
the crankshaft is not smooth. This brings the heavy flywheels into design for smoothening
and maintaining constant inertia to the crankshaft by stabilizing the variable
irregular energy supply from the engine. Valves and camshaft system present
inside the cylinder head above the engine controls the supply of fuel and
removal of burnt fuel from the cylinder. 45


Pistons are made
from cast aluminum alloy. Component feature of the piston are the piston head
the top surface of the piston, piston pin bore a hole through the piston,
piston pin a hollow shaft for connecting the piston and the connecting rod,
skirt the bottom of the piston, piston rings the expandable split ring acting
as a seal between the cylinder and the piston, ring grooves the attachment area
for the piston rings and ring lands the sealing surface of the piston ring.




5.1.4 Connecting rod


The connecting
rod connects the piston and the crankshaft. It serves as the medium to transfer
the power from the reciprocating motion of piston to the rotating motion of
crankshaft. The connecting rod is made from steel and aluminum. An error in the
manufacturing of connecting rod can cause a disastrous engine failure. The most
common connecting rod used in nearly every type of engine is the cast rod, made
from molding of molten steel. 45


5.1.5 Crankshaft


The crankshaft is
connected to the connecting rod this is where the engine reciprocating motion
of piston is converted to rotatory motion and transferred to the flywheel. The
engine’s crankshaft is commonly made of heavy cast iron. The crankshaft’s
material has to be strong enough to withstand the everlasting stress it
receives from the constant push and pull from the pistons. 45


5.1.6 Camshaft


The function of
camshaft is to open and close the inlet and exhaust valves of the engine at
synchronized timing to make the engine run itself smoothly. The perfection in
timing is essential to obtain maximum power and efficiency. The camshaft also operates
the distributor to synchronize spark ignition. Camshafts are directly connected
with the engine rotation i.e. the rotation of the crankshaft through a gears or
belt drives. It contains lobes that activate the valve train. In many cases, 2
camshafts are present in the engine, one controls the inlet valves and the
other controls the exhaust valves. The production of camshaft is by forging
process normally made from one piece of steel. Each cylinder of the engine will
be associated with 2 lobes of the camshaft for the inlet and exhaust valves. The
camshaft operates the lifters through its lobes; the lifters operate the rest
of the valve train. The camshaft additionally has one extra lobe for the fuel
pump. 45



5.1.7 Flywheel


The crankshaft is
attached to the flywheel. The function of flywheel is to provide an inertial
mass to store the rotational energy. It is essential as the engine only
delivers power in power strokes and during the remaining time, the rotation is
carried over by the flywheel. Flywheels assist to provide a smooth power
delivery as output. The rotational inertia of the flywheel facilitates a slower
minimum unloaded speed. The flywheel also balances the system by its weight and
rotation. The clutch or the torque converter is attached to the flywheel where
the power is further transferred to the wheels. The flywheel is manufactured
through casting process. 45


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