The marine environment generates a large number of ecosystem services and the Arctic marine ecosystem is no exception. The ice-covered waters and the marginal zone are special marine environment of the arctic that are highly enriched by several biological, ecological and economic resources. They offer many different kinds of ecosystem services that includes provisioning, regulating, supporting and cultural services. These ecosystems provides biodiversity, essential habitats for important arctic species, including commercial fisheries, contain mineral resources such as oil and gas, and maintain process such as carbon recycling and so on. Studies have shown that the Arctic marine ecosystem hosts a vast array of over 2000 species of algae, tens of thousands of microbes, over 5000 animal species, and large populations of seabirds and sea mammals, including unique and rare species  (Michel et al., 2013), of which many are also commercially exploited. The marginal ice zone and ice-edge habitats are important for Arctic endemic species, many of which are red listed nationally and internationally (NPI, 2017). Sea ice as a habitat has a unique status and value. Some artic marine mammals are sea ice obligates and feeding depend on sea ice, whereas others use ice, but do not depend on it completely (Laidre et al., 2015; Laidre et al., 2008). These habitats are also important for many migratory species. Disturbances to the habitats may therefore have consequences for the population levels of many species. There are at least 11 species of Arctic marine mammals, which are particularly vulnerable due to their dependence on sea ice (Kovacs et al., 2011; Laidre et al., 2015; Laidre et al., 2008). In addition, the arctic environment offers a wealth of petroleum and mineral resources. Prediction studies suggest that a considerable fraction of the world’s undiscovered petroleum reserves lie within the Arctic waters (see map). Furthermore, the Arctic Ocean presently acts as a sink for atmospheric CO2. High levels of primary production over extensive shelf seas, surface water cooling, and sea–ice dynamics have all been observed to induce locally significant CO2 uptake (MacGilchrist et al., 2014). 


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