4. VI. IR Proximity sensor. VII. Ultrasonic Sensor. VIII.


                             Components are simple
structure mass of all scheme / robot. To create your robot effective and to provide
the preferred yield the components should be elected intelligently. The resources
used in this robot are chosen on the basis of their effectiveness and range.
Here is the list of the following constituents we have used:

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12V DC Motor.

L298N Motor Driver.

Arduino UNO.

Flame Sensor.

Smoke Sensor.

IR Proximity sensor.

Ultrasonic Sensor.

12V DC Water Pump.

Servo Motor.

12V DC Motor:



12V DC Motor with Shaft



L298N Motor Driver:

                              The L298 is a united
solid circuit in a 15- lead Multiwatt and PowerSO20 packages. It is a high
voltage, high flow double full-connect driver drawn to recognize typical TTL
logic levels and drive inductive loads, for example, transmissions, solenoids,
DC and volunteering machines. Two empower efforts are given to empower the device
freely of the info signals. The manufacturers of the lower transistors of each frame
are linked together and the linking outer terminal can be used for the link of
an outer detecting resistor. An extra source input is given with the goal that
the rationality works at bring down voltage.

Motor Driver L298N

Arduino UNO:

                           Arduino UNO is a
microcontroller with board based on ATmega328P. It has 6 analog I/O pins and 14
digital I/O pins. Out of 14 I/O pins 6 digital I/O pins can be used as PWM. It
has 16 MHz quartz crystal. Its functional voltage is 6V – 20V (restricted) or
5V – 12V (suggested).

Arduino UNO Board

Other Specs are given in
the table below:

4.1: Arduino UNO Specs




Flame Sensor:

                                   An IR flame
sensor unit comprises an IR receiver, capacitor, resistor, variable resistor
(potentiometer) and LM393. It is clever to notice infrared light which ranges
between 700nm – 1000nm. This unit adapts the infrared light into current
changes. And we can modify its sensitivity over Potentiometer (Variable
resistor). Its exposure angle is 60 degrees.

Flame sensor (labeling)


sensor interface with Arduino is reasonably simple. First connect the Vcc pin
of the sensor with Arduino 5V pin. Second connect the GND pin of sensor with
the Arduino GND pin. Now lastly connect the D0 pin of sensor with the Arduino
digital I/O pin (let it be pin 7) as displayed in the fig beneath.

Flame sensor interference with Arduino

Smoke Sensor:

                              The voltage that
the sensor yields deviates according to the smoke/gas level that occurs in the air.
The sensor yields a voltage that is proportional to the concentration of

In additional verses, the
association between voltage and gas concentration is the following:

1. The greater the gas
concentration, the greater the yield voltage

2. The lower the gas
concentration, the lower the yield voltage

Working Mechanism of MQ – 2 Sensor

                               The main benefit
of smoke detection above thermal detection is that it doesn’t need line-of-sight
to the fire. In additional verses, if a fire is at the back of a mountain, it
can be marked by the smoke column it will finally create. Extra benefit of
smoke detection is that, in the situation of individuals in a watch tower, the
range of discovery can be up to 30km. Neither thermal sensors nor CCTV-based
smoke detection can so far reach this range.

                               There are two important
drawbacks of smoke exposure. The first is that in order for a fire to create a visible
smoke column, the fire himself wants to be reasonably big. Big fires mean big
resources are vital to fight it, and in many situations, the fire is already
out of control before it is noticed. The second important drawback is that
smoke can only be noticed in specific visibility situations. Darkness, fog,
smoke, rain, and wind all interfere with the capacity for a smoke column to be recognized.
These drawbacks apply to all kinds of smoke exposure, whether human or automatic.


IR Proximity Sensor:

means Infrared. In additional verses, it is a wavelength of light which human
eye cannot see but camera can see it.

IR Proximity Sensor

                                      An IR
sensor comprises IR LED and Photodiode. It is mainly used for obstacle exposure.
The IR LED transfers light when an obstacle exists the light returns after striking
and photodiode obtains it. Hence Obstacle is sensed.

Working of IR proximity Sensor






Ultrasonic Sensor:

sensor unit HC – SR04 offers 2cm – 400cm non-contact measurement job, the
ranging precision can range to 3mm. The units comprises ultrasonic
transmitters, receiver and control circuit. The simple principle of labor:

Using I/O trigger for at least 10us high
level signal

The Unit automatically sends eight 40 kHz
and sense whether there is a beat signal back.

If the signal back, through high level,
time of high yield I/O period is the time from transfer ultrasonic to

distance = (high level time × velocity of sound (340M/S) / 2,

Working Mechanism of Ultrasonic Sensor

4.2: Electric Parameters


12V DC Water Pump:

                                  It Operates
on DC 12V and 1.1A. Its power is 20 Watt. It has a capacity of throwing 10L/min
with a height of 5m (16ft). It has following features:

v  High

v  Low

v  Low
Noise (< 38dB). v  Working life (approx. 40,000 hours). v  Stator and circuit board sealed by epoxy resin. v  Permanent magnetic rotor. v  Brushless. Fig. 12V DC Water Pump 4.9. Servo Motor:                         Tiny and lightweight with high output power. Servo can rotate approximately 180 degrees (90 in each direction), and works just like the standard kinds but smaller. You can use any servo code, hardware or library to control these servos. Good for beginners who want to make stuff move without building a motor controller with feedback & gear box, especially since it will fit in small places. It comes with a 3 horns (arms) and hardware. Fig. Mini Servo Motor (Sg90) Table 4.3: Specs of Servo Motor Fig. Dimensions of Servo Motor   The Working mechanism of the Servo Motor can be observed from the fig below: Fig. Working Mechanism of Mini Servo Motor


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