4.Materials Components are simplestructure mass of all scheme / robot. To create your robot effective and to providethe preferred yield the components should be elected intelligently. The resourcesused in this robot are chosen on the basis of their effectiveness and range.Here is the list of the following constituents we have used: I. 12V DC Motor.
II. L298N Motor Driver. III. Arduino UNO.
IV. Flame Sensor. V. Smoke Sensor. VI. IR Proximity sensor. VII. Ultrasonic Sensor.
VIII. 12V DC Water Pump. IX. Servo Motor.4.
112V DC Motor: Fig.12V DC Motor with Shaft 4.2.L298N Motor Driver: The L298 is a unitedsolid circuit in a 15- lead Multiwatt and PowerSO20 packages.
It is a highvoltage, high flow double full-connect driver drawn to recognize typical TTLlogic levels and drive inductive loads, for example, transmissions, solenoids,DC and volunteering machines. Two empower efforts are given to empower the devicefreely of the info signals. The manufacturers of the lower transistors of each frameare linked together and the linking outer terminal can be used for the link ofan outer detecting resistor. An extra source input is given with the goal thatthe rationality works at bring down voltage. Fig.Motor Driver L298N4.3.Arduino UNO: Arduino UNO is amicrocontroller with board based on ATmega328P.
It has 6 analog I/O pins and 14digital I/O pins. Out of 14 I/O pins 6 digital I/O pins can be used as PWM. Ithas 16 MHz quartz crystal. Its functional voltage is 6V – 20V (restricted) or5V – 12V (suggested).
Fig.Arduino UNO BoardOther Specs are given inthe table below: Table4.1: Arduino UNO Specs 4.4.Flame Sensor: An IR flamesensor unit comprises an IR receiver, capacitor, resistor, variable resistor(potentiometer) and LM393. It is clever to notice infrared light which rangesbetween 700nm – 1000nm.
This unit adapts the infrared light into currentchanges. And we can modify its sensitivity over Potentiometer (Variableresistor). Its exposure angle is 60 degrees. Fig.Flame sensor (labeling) Flamesensor interface with Arduino is reasonably simple. First connect the Vcc pinof the sensor with Arduino 5V pin.
Second connect the GND pin of sensor withthe Arduino GND pin. Now lastly connect the D0 pin of sensor with the Arduinodigital I/O pin (let it be pin 7) as displayed in the fig beneath. Fig.Flame sensor interference with Arduino4.5.Smoke Sensor: The voltage thatthe sensor yields deviates according to the smoke/gas level that occurs in the air.
The sensor yields a voltage that is proportional to the concentration ofsmoke/gas.In additional verses, theassociation between voltage and gas concentration is the following:1. The greater the gasconcentration, the greater the yield voltage2. The lower the gasconcentration, the lower the yield voltage Fig.Working Mechanism of MQ – 2 Sensor The main benefitof smoke detection above thermal detection is that it doesn’t need line-of-sightto the fire. In additional verses, if a fire is at the back of a mountain, itcan be marked by the smoke column it will finally create. Extra benefit ofsmoke detection is that, in the situation of individuals in a watch tower, therange of discovery can be up to 30km.
Neither thermal sensors nor CCTV-basedsmoke detection can so far reach this range. There are two importantdrawbacks of smoke exposure. The first is that in order for a fire to create a visiblesmoke column, the fire himself wants to be reasonably big. Big fires mean bigresources are vital to fight it, and in many situations, the fire is alreadyout of control before it is noticed. The second important drawback is thatsmoke can only be noticed in specific visibility situations.
Darkness, fog,smoke, rain, and wind all interfere with the capacity for a smoke column to be recognized.These drawbacks apply to all kinds of smoke exposure, whether human or automatic. 4.6.IR Proximity Sensor: IRmeans Infrared. In additional verses, it is a wavelength of light which humaneye cannot see but camera can see it. Fig.
IR Proximity Sensor An IRsensor comprises IR LED and Photodiode. It is mainly used for obstacle exposure.The IR LED transfers light when an obstacle exists the light returns after strikingand photodiode obtains it. Hence Obstacle is sensed. Fig.Working of IR proximity Sensor 4.
7.Ultrasonic Sensor: Ultrasonicsensor unit HC – SR04 offers 2cm – 400cm non-contact measurement job, theranging precision can range to 3mm. The units comprises ultrasonictransmitters, receiver and control circuit.
The simple principle of labor:1) Using I/O trigger for at least 10us highlevel signal2) The Unit automatically sends eight 40 kHzand sense whether there is a beat signal back.3) If the signal back, through high level,time of high yield I/O period is the time from transfer ultrasonic torecurring.Testdistance = (high level time × velocity of sound (340M/S) / 2, Fig.Working Mechanism of Ultrasonic Sensor Table4.2: Electric Parameters 4.8.12V DC Water Pump: It Operateson DC 12V and 1.1A.
Its power is 20 Watt. It has a capacity of throwing 10L/minwith a height of 5m (16ft). It has following features:v Highefficiency.v LowConsumption.v LowNoise (< 38dB).v Workinglife (approx. 40,000 hours).v Stator and circuit boardsealed by epoxy resin.
v Permanent magnetic rotor.v Brushless. Fig.12V DC Water Pump 4.9.Servo Motor: Tiny and lightweightwith high output power.
Servo can rotate approximately 180 degrees (90 in eachdirection), and works just like the standard kinds but smaller. You can use anyservo code, hardware or library to control these servos. Good for beginners whowant to make stuff move without building a motor controller with feedback box, especially since it will fit in small places. It comes with a 3 horns(arms) and hardware. Fig.Mini Servo Motor (Sg90) Table4.3: Specs of Servo Motor Fig.Dimensions of Servo Motor The Working mechanism ofthe Servo Motor can be observed from the fig below: Fig.Working Mechanism of Mini Servo Motor