3. the following specific properties of brick and monolithic

3.

      Application of Nano-technology in refractory industrial:  Nano-technology is usually introduced by size and consistof the visualization,properties, production and manipulation of structures which are lower than 100 nm 89- 90.Specific mechanical, optical, electrical, and magnetic properties which can differ substantially from the properties of the same materials at larger dimensions can show for the structures that the dimensions of which range from 100 nm down to approx. 0.1 nm. Hence, nano-technology is a very active research field and has applications in a number of areas. Today, considerable attention has been paid to the use of nano-technology in the progress of refractories products 91-93. Nano-technology has been entered to refractories. It has been expressed that the efficiency of therefractories was extremely improved for the well dispersion of nano-sized grain in the microstructure and reaction activity.

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Some efforts have been done by different researchers to enhance the properties of refractories (bricks andmonolithic) by using Nano-particles. The application of nano-technology is aimed at achieving the following specific properties of brick and monolithic refractories 90-95: ü Ultra-high compressive strength, ü Relatively high tensile strength and ductility, ü More efficient cement hydration, ü Increased aggregate-paste bond strength, ü High corrosion resistance ü Control of cracks and self-healing ü High thermal shock resistance and   ü High Abrasionresistance ü High chemical corrosion résistance   4.      The Use of Nano technology in monolithic refractories: According to the above, in this section, the results of carried out activities by various researchers using nano-technology in monolithic refractories have been expressed (Table 1). It is observed that the use of Nano-technology has been heavily used by researchers in recent years. Conclusion: Recently, Nano-technology is used for production to refractory products and it is a necessary tool included in many activities.

A lot of research has been working on theadding of different types of additives in ceramic goods, and some of them have concentrated their investigations on the use of Nano-additives, because of the mentioned advantageous of adding nano-particles to the ceramic goods.  In this review article, all researches which done to enhance the performance of monolithic refractories is reported and it was concluded that the application of nano-additives has the best results. Results show that recently, researchers have been using nano-technology and have reached interesting results.