There is substantial evidence
that blastocyst transfers are better than cleavage stage transfers. This
prompts companies to produce media to support embryo development to the
blastocyst stage. Studies have shown that its considered appropriate to place
embryos in a media up to day 5. Collaterally, a buildup of waste products arises,
so its recommended to renew the media on day 3 to minimize waste concentration (Leese and Brison, 2015). Growth of ART embryos
remain inferior to in vivo embryonic procedures, indicating that in vitro procedures invoke
cellular and metabolic stress on the embryo, forcing it to spend energy to
adapt to the foreign environment. Stress due to culture leads to an increase of
glucose uptake, respiration and lactate production within 1 – 6 hours of
post-compaction (Leese and Brison, 2015). Thus, the manipulations of embryos
during IVF induces stress responses and epigenetic changes linked to those
responses (Leese and Brison, 2015).


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