2. from the Gulf of Mexico. 3. Woodland people

People of the Archaic Period made woodworking tools such as chipped stone axes
and adzes, advanced knives and scrapers, and punches that sped up the process
of turning animal skins into clothing. Archaeologists found bison bones, the skeleton
of a domestic dog, and stone tools at a campsite in Itasca State Park dating back
to about 6000 BC. Archaeologists inferred that hunters drove the bison into the
swamp and speared it while it was struggling in the dirt. A female skeleton
from the Archaic Period was discovered at Pelican Rapids. The Skeleton was
known as Minnesota Man but changed to Minnesota Woman in 1968. She was dated
back to 6700 BC. With the remains were an antler tool and the shell of a
salt-water clam that probably came from the Gulf of Mexico.


Woodland people began to make pottery and bury their dead in earthen mounds
some time before 1000 and 500 BC. One of their most familiar tools was a
grooved hammerstone. It was a spherical stone surrounded by a shallow groove,
so it could be used to pound dried beef and berries together. They used copper
tools, hide scrapers, awls and punches, carved dice for games, whistles made of
bird bone, and barbed points for spearing. Eventually, they started using the
bow and arrow for hunting and protection This allowed hunters to kill game from
greater distances.

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mounds were small, low, and round. The mounds contained human bones, tools, and
remains of pottery. The largest mound in the state was built by the Laurel
people on the Rainy River. It is one hundred feet in diameter and forty feet
high. One of the earliest excavated Woodlands sites is on Grey Cloud Island in
the Mississippi River bottoms. Thick walled flower shaped clay vessels were
found. There were no handles and little decoration on them. They were placed in
a bed of hot coals and used for cooking. The Laurel people made thin-walled
pottery fired hard and decorated with from a toothed stamp.


People of the Mississippian culture built big settlements with central plazas
and large earthen mounds. They built temples and held religious ceremonies. They
grew crops of corn, squash, beans, and sunflowers in fields. The Mississippians
established a major population center at Cahokia, Illinois. The biggest
ceremonial mound measures 700 feet by 1,000 feet. The whole compound took up
sixteen acres. Settlements spread out into the areas that became Minnesota and
Wisconsin. Larger settlements dug deep underground storing pits for storing
vegetables. The Mississippian people hunted deer and speared fish from the
rivers. They made substantial use of animal bones and horns. A hoe made from a
bison shoulder blade, a spatula made from a rib, a ladle made from a turtle
shell, clamshell spoons, and carved fishhooks and sewing needles are some of
the things recovered from their village sites.


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