2.1 Empowerment issues Of the entire population in the district, the women were foundto be 47% and all on them depended on male citizens for their living. The surveycarried out by MICS (2010) stated that the ratio of girls to boys is in animbalanced state; for example, if men are 40% then the women could be 20% ofthe population.
Major of them are illiterate due to several reasons namely religion,society, male domination etc. Poverty was found to be one of the major reasonsfor illiteracy in Mastung district. The district also had poor health situationsince the absence of abundant doctors there and this led to having lessattention towards the common checkups in hospitals and lack of professional deliveryassistance. The major issues faced by women there are that due to illiteracy,females are not aware of their owned rights and this has increased thedominance of men over them. There are no female doctors in the wards andhospitals, especially in the maternity ward for helping the pregnant women out.
Many other issues include illiteracy, gender inequality, unpaid wages, employmentignorance, state representation and much more. (District profile 2011) It’s because of the interpretation of the existing content, thecomplexity of empowerment of women has been acknowledged by many scientists andsocial workers all around the world. If we consider an instance on this matterwe will see the study done on about five Asian countries that mostly reportedthe influence on gender due to social values and norms due to risinginequality. The findings done by researchers indicated that the concept ofwomen empowerment is much complex since there can be some areas where they arenot empowered; while in some, they have their right of empowerment (2003). Thevalues presented by society matters a lot while talking about women empowermentand to achieve the desired change in the society, the ground of empowermentshould be thoroughly solid. Another study suggested that it’s the word ‘power’ which canact as an influential aspect to bring this change (2010).
Furthermore, somesocial workers reportedly suggested that the effects of religion on Pakistanchanged drastically being an identity to dictating the entire lives of thecivilians. That means religion used to be simply a choice and everyone wouldfollow with pure heart but presently, it has been controlling the lives ofpeople around Pakistan (2009). Many other people such as Shaheed also believethat religion and Politics are the primary reasons of women disempowerment inthe country and all around the world. Illiteracy is also one of the reasons of the womendisempowerment that has been seen over the years in the world. The worldliteracy rates survey taken by SDPI shows the literacy rates of men as 67% andwomen as 48% in Punjab alone. Both the rates declined to 58% and 22% in Baluchistan.
In Mastung District, there are many women that are not allowed to participatein outside world and thus, they are left immobile. They don’t even have thepermission of accessing outside market for daily needs. Even though, they haveskills such as embroidery, due to lack of direct interaction with customersthey get fewer wages over their skillfully made materials. Their male familymembers come forward and sell the products made by females being less expertizedand having no motivation for work.
For the achievement of women empowerment, it became mandatoryto include the human rights and the world economic forum decided to work onthis aspect of reality. Since few years, they have had repeatedly tried toincrease awareness of the need of women empowerment and the positive change itwill bring within the society in Pakistan. It would at least take increasedeconomic and social gender equality, equal human rights to males and females, improvedhealth and nutrition and good education (Zahidi 2005).
There are many othersocial firms such as UNIFEM that designed seven stages of achieving the goal ofwomen empowerment in a country. It started from promoting women in leadershiplevel, non-discrimination, giving proper education and employment training towomen, taking care of their security, gender equality, transparency, otherdevelopmental aspects such as food and marketing. It true that power comes along with empowerment but it is alsoone of the complex concepts that make the women empowerment quite difficult.
Ithas relatively varied articulations for completely different individuals of thecountry (Zulfiqar 2010). Empowerment for an individual comes in the list of impossiblethings especially those that have to do with the mind-state unless we keepfinding solution at an external manner. It has been seen in history many timesthat many females react differently to the similar issue irrespective ofreligion and culture. Even if they have same culture and social status, their multiplereactions to the same issue shows their varied level of perception for theworldly things. Many females have the surrendered perception towards the valuesdeclared by society while others stand up against them and try to dominate theethics and values. But at some point, it becomes mandatory to have externalfactors for the growth of inner power for the achievement of women empowerment. Being abstract, the word empowerment brings upon variouscomplication issues related to measurement. It never shows the wholesomepicture that is required for personal and social growth of women.
But for thebroader worldview, it is mandatory to have a measurement map of empowermentwhere the position of women in the world will be known. It has been ahistorical phenomenon of development of several methodologies to measure theempowerment in various ways. The certain tool that is widely used is (GGI)Gender Gap Index since it works in such a way that four sections such ashealth, political, educational and economic growth are covered. Empowerment should be shaping the lives of mere people alongwith becoming an aspect to impact the decisions of day to day life. Two othermeasuring methods should be considered for empowerment issue such as (GEM) Genderempowerment measure and (GDI) Gender-related development index which primarilyfocuses for highlighting the current status in the country. GDI, however, isused to have the measurement of certain areas of empowerment such as education,income, or age, whereas the other one focuses more on political and economicside of reality for the empowerment issue. Another measurement report in 2010 stated that three should befixed three dimensions of measuring the inequality between men and women suchas labor-ship, empowerment and reproduction.
It was done by using anothermeasuring index known as Gender inequality index. The GII focuses on thesufferings faced by females in the country in various walks of their lives. Thesefactors can provide some basic information over the complexity of empowermentbut it fails to describe the daily problems and issues faced by women withrespect to empowerment. Boender and Schuler (2003) suggested different perspectivetowards the measurement of empowering issue presenting the newest sixdimensions such as cultural, legal, economic, personal, psychological and politicalaspects of their lives.
But later it was found that the practical applicationof this process is more complex than previously done. The dimensions areconnected with each other and identifying their relationship is a disastrouswork. Nosheen and Chaudhary (2009) noted the same in their study and arguedabout the unanswered questions regarding women empowerment issues. The measurementissue is subtle in its form and should be clearly researched.
It is not doneso, as noted by the researchers, it becomes difficult to determine the exactspecifications of the context of empowerment. To conclude, since there are various aspects of empowerment andit differentiates in culture and region the measurement issue should vary too. Otheraspects of life that matters in measuring this issue are married life, economy,bank account, finances, joint family and caste or religion. But due to dauntingnumber of empowerment determinants it becomes impossible to capture the fulldetailed analysis of the issue. 2.
2 Empowerment in economy There have had been multiple micro programs in past few years thatwere developed for the possibility of progress in this context. These programswere especially famous among social workers, governmental organizations, and otherdonors. They specifically targeted women having less wage and power, no labor,less credit to give them equal opportunity of development in the economicfield. Women’s economic development has been a topic of discussion sincevarious decades and this led to the change in country policy.
Their currentfocus is to give them credited system of economic freedom rather than financialhelp since the former helps the women to become independent by being linkedwith the banking field. This marks their expectations of development in theareas of inequality. This credit system has been the topic of discussion foreveryone around the nation. Various firms and organizations tried to have a specificmodel that should be as good as banks from other countries that has creditsystem successfully established for poor citizens. The micro-credit system canbe said as firmly developing methodology that has given its cooperation towardsthe economic growth. This has made women feel empowered and it gave them theproductive role they desired to have in the society. This happened due to theestablishment of credit program that mostly focused on the measurement ofsuccess to see the number of credit being delivered to the women and the levelof repayment to provide better facilities.
According to one published study, among all the small kidsranging from 6 to 10, about 40% girls and 30% boys do not go to school. And theratings become worst as the age goes higher. Now it indicates that sinceeducation system is not up to the mark in Pakistan, especially in rural areas,employment is also degrading in its way. Even if the women are given theopportunity for employment, they are being kept underutilized and the majorfocus is usually given to male employees. The number of women receiving actualtraining is considerably lower, about 11%, than the rates of males.
Among 15 to64 aged women groups, the rates of females decreased to only 26% of havinglabor job. Even after this, the number employed women remains 12% of the entirepopulation in urban areas. Among women graduates, about 30% of them earned less wagewhereas, only 10% of graduates among men earn the wages similar to thesefemales.
Females usually working for some relatives or her family member areusually left unpaid. There are about 60% women who are unpaid workers and worksfull day as a regular employee. Another problem that was seen in the economicsector of Pakistan was the gap of gender wage. Women who have high education,such as engineers, earn almost similar to that of men. But the level ofearnings decreases for women as the level of post comes down. For example, aprimary school teacher in Mastung district earns the wage of 43% while the maleteachers have 60% earnings in their respective hands. The women being below poverty line are sometimes unable to havesaved funds for better future and established empowerment. The more women workin such a condition, the less number of possibilities are there for them tocome out of poverty.
Among the households, about 21% of them and about 27%women in total are below poverty line. This had been the primary reason for the credit system that wasbrought in by several government or private firms. Micro-crediting system hasbeen an important part of the empowerment system in the entire Pakistan. Even financialfirms have also started this crediting system for then growth of women andtheir empowerment. They targeted women living in poverty as well as below povertylevels and provided them facilities for improving their standard of living. Thisshows the positive aspect of crediting system and its effects on women empowermentsystem. A study (2001) shows that this crediting system plays a vital role inimproving the level of poor and below poverty level women and provided themstability in life. Since the positive effects of crediting system had been noticedby many people, some researchers also did several studies over the decidedsubject.
They needed to see the relation and effects of both on the social andeconomic level of reality. Malik (2005) and his team researched thoroughly on thesubject matter and found out that this crediting processes had indeed shownbetter results in the past, but still it failed to provide the overallsolution. The empowerment in women occurred at some level due to its complete uniquenessbut some women even had to face negative impacts of the entire creditingsystem. Another social worker concluded that woman who took loans don’t havefull control over money. Rather they would sometimes give the control to themale members for their family.
Other kind of system that researchers came up with wasmicrofinance. It is especially for people earning low or no income to start asmall business and usually banking system is involved it in. it was thoughtthat this system was better for development of equal rights of gender since itprovided females to have self-employment and have power over money. In manyother countries, this system had been a key aspect of helping poor people out. Multiplebanks have already brought it in and helped the country to bring poverty abovethe heads of water. Pakistan too has been trying to bring in certain aspect ofservice between female individuals to provide them helping hand for improvingtheir condition in life. It was initially difficult to do so, but few non-governmentalfirms and state bank of Pakistan also provided such services to the public atlarge. They all have women with poor background as their primary focus with anobjective to improve their financial as well as social condition.
The mainpurpose was to have an established role of women in decision making in theirfamilies and having increased social level in the society (Rehman 2007). Some socialworkers even declared that the microfinance can be a required solution for thebenefit of women in the nation. Several studies were made to see the connection betweenmicrofinance and women empowerment and the claim that was made that it haspositive effects on women. One of these studies states that the impact seemedto have positive effects on the empowerment of women and they successfullyachieved economic growth. 3.1 The study area selection criteria Mastung district has ranked 13th in the entireBalochistan with respect to the enlarged area, which is 5,896 SQ KM. there havebeen major divisions of society: Khan, Brahui and Dehwar.
Among these groups,Mastung has about 80% population of Brahui alone. There are many sub tribes ofBrahui namely, Shahwani, Sarpara, Raisani, Kurd, Lango, Mahammad Sahi, Lehriand many more. The tribes that reside in Mastung have farming or agriculture astheir primary occupational duty for earning money. People living in this districtusually settle for having two meals per day but this was found to be the systemof rural areas. Majority of urban population settle for breakfast, lunch anddinner. It a usual routine to have women at home and men at work in many housesin Mastung district.
The decision making in most of the joint families ofMastung is in the hands of senior male member and women are always dominated underthem. Women don’t have the freedom to select their own husbands with respect tomarriage; it usually is either their fathers or brothers who take care of this. Being a tribal society, mostly men are in the highest politicalposition in Mastung. Social power is always in the hands of men in Mastung andfemales are usually seen as a domestic person. Women usually take care of children,clothes, field, and livestock and also do the household chores; the literacyrate of the women in Mastung is currently (2011) 27.9%.
The social status ofwomen is usually determined by the level of status achieved by their husbands. Supposeif the husband is the Nawab of the town, his wife will be greatly respectedaround the place whereas the wife of a laborer will be neglected. The mainreason for is seemed to be the tribal system that was found to have a deep rootin their family traditions. The male population was found to be 58% in the year 1961. Inthe year 1981 the male population was 51%, in the year 1998 it was 53% andfinally in 2010, it became 53% of the entire population. Women’s population variedin various levels every decade.
In the year 1961, it was 43% of the entirepopulation whereas it increased to 57% in the year 1981. Due to some reasons,it again dropped to 47% in 2010. That means by 2010, the male population wasfound to be 102 thousand and females were 90 thousand of the entire population. One survey taken in 1998c stated that among all houses in Mastung,about 11% of the residents lived in a rent free house, 2% were giving rents andabout 86% of the total had owned houses. But ever since the separation happened,the demands for residential houses and rent houses drastically increased in doubledrates. Research design. The data has to be collected and have to have a proper analysisfor achieving the goal of research design. This research is done to have arealistic approach towards the specific topic of the field.
The primary phaseof the current topic was done in order to find the research questions and thefirst phase was known as desk study while the second approach was the casestudy. In the first phase, they collected information regarding the subjectthrough various methods such as internet search, books, people etc. in thesecond phase they collected the information and other important data whiledoing the field analysis.