Hinduism started as the faith of Aryan tribes that migrated to India, and allHindus formally venerate their four holy books, the Vedas. The Aryans absorbedlocal gods and customs as they went. One result is that virtually none of thegods of the Vedas is worshipped in Hindu temples today; almost all the deitiesare local ones or hybrids; therefore, gods in Hinduism diverse, and range fromranging from monastic self-denial to worship of the goddess of wealth; fromnon-violence to human sacrifice; from chastity to religion-sexual orgies.
Hinduismtolerates so much internal diversity because this religion has no hierarchy.Hindu monasteries have venerated gurus, but any Hindu can differ from them. AnyHindu can don a monk’s robe, preach pretty well what he likes, and be respectedas a holy man.
The history and culture of Hinduism make it able totolerant internal diversity because it generates tradition and religiontogether. 2. Brahmins. Theyare the priestly classes, who are entitled to study the Vedas, perform ritesand rituals for themselves and for others and obliged to observe thesacraments. They are the middlemen between gods and men. They are expected toshow exemplary behavior and spend their lives in the pursuit of divineknowledge and preservation of the traditions. They are the lawmaker, and bornto serve and protect the dharma.
He belonged to the excellent of the humanrace, was the highest on earth, the lord of all created beings. Kshatriyas. They are the warrior class, who are commanded toprotect the people, bestow gifts to the Brahmins, and offer sacrifices to godsand ancestors.Vaisyas: They are the merchants and peasant classes, who areexpected to tend cattle, offer sacrifices, study the Vedas, trade, lend moneyand cultivate the land. Shudras: They are the labor class, whose only duty is to servethe other three castes.Chandalas: The lowest of the Shudras were called chandalas or theimpure ones.
They were treated as untouchables because of their gory religiouspractices, penchant for sacrifices, magical rites and unclean habits. 6. Caste System has been the bane of Hindu society forcenturies. The Hindu caste system is unique in the world, but resembles in someways Plato’s ideal society of philosophers, warriors and commoners. A caste isa division of society based on occupation and family lineage.
Hindu castesystem recognized four distinct classes or divisions among people based on itscriteria. From a Hindu view, caste system built a good rule for the society;because it is cased on the classes, every people has its role in the society,and every people should follow the caste system rule, which helps thestableness of the society. However, from a non-Hindu view, the caste systemviolates one of the contemporary cognitive: everyone is born to be equal.Because caste system divide people by their birth; this is not right becauseunder this rule, there are classes to divide the society, and not everyone hasthe equal chance.
12. Four Stages of Life set basic laws for Hindusand gives them meaning of life. Hinduism indicates that human beings arecompletely responsible for their actions and the paths they chose to lead theirlives.
It gives them complete freedom to follow their inherent nature andexplore their inner world to arrive at the absolute Truth about themselves and theirexistence. Hinduism does emphasize that one should live upon earth morallyand responsibly according to Four Stages of Life. According to Hinduism every human being, whois an aspect of God, has to live, practice and protect his Dharma or moral and religiouslaws. If he does not participate in God’s work to keep the order and regularityof the world and does not protect His Law, he is not entitled to moksha orsalvation. Moksha is the highest reward for stepping into the shoes of God andexemplifying Him upon earth.13.
The position of womenin Hinduism is mixed and contradictory. Women who are mothers of a son, withtheir husbands still alive, are the most auspicious members of society. It iswhen and if their husbands die, that a woman may lose her status in society. TheHindu woman has no right to divorce her husband. She has no property orinheritance rights. Choice of partner is limited because she can only marrywithin her own caste; moreover her horoscope must match that of the intending bridegroom/family.The family of the girl has to offer an enormous dowry to the bridegroom/family.
If her husband dies she should commit Sati (being cremated with her deadhusband). Since today’s law forbids Sati, society mainly punishes her in other”holy” ways. She can never remarry.
The widow is considered to be a curse andmust not be seen in public. She cannot wear jewelry or colorful clothes. Sheshould not even take part in her children’s marriage. Child and infant marriageis encouraged.15. Bhakti literally means”attachment, participation, fondness for, homage, faith, love, devotion,worship, piety”.
In Hinduism, it refers to devotion to, and love for, apersonal god or a representational god by a devotee. Bhakti means food,the sacrificed; bhakti is the act of sacrifice; and bhakti is the recipient of thesacrifice. In a ritual sense, a bhakti is one who offers him or who is offeredas a sacrifice in a sacrificial ritual.
Bhaktialso means he who offers sacrificial foods an offering to God, who is the finalrecipient and the Enjoyer of all material things. He is also the devourer. Devotion is a sacrificial act of offering in which youearn the grace of God by offering either yourself or what you have as thesacrificial material or food. In a general sense, bhakti meanshaving devotion, attachment or loyalty to God. Every Hindu who participates ina ritual worship receives Prasad am and knows that it signals the end of theritual. However, few people know what it means and what it signifies. SectionB1.
I love yoga very much. I think it is a way to stretch my body and help me torelax myself. I have a yoga mat in my apartment; in my spare time, I like tolie down on my yoga mat to do some stretching, because I believe it is a goodway to keep my body skinny, and to develop my temperament. Also, last summer, Itook yoga class in China; teacher taught me how to do yoga practice right. Andafter finishing a set of yoga practice, I feel my body is relaxed, and I gaineda lot of benefit from doing yoga practice. Yogais a family of ancient spiritual practices that originated in India, where itremains a vibrant living tradition and is seen as a means to enlightenment.
Karma Yoga, Bhakti Yoga, Janna Yoga, and Raja Yoga are considered the four mainyoga, but there are many other types. In other parts of the world where yoga ispopular, notably the United States, yoga has become associated with the posturesof Hatha Yoga, which are popular as fitness exercises. Yoga as a means toenlightenment is central to Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and hasinfluenced other religious and spiritual practices throughout the world. Atits broadest, yoga, from the root word “yuj” in Sanskrit, means to unite. MostHindu texts discuss yoga as a practice to control the senses and ultimately,the mind. The most famous is the Bhagavad Gita in which Krishna speaks offour types of yoga – bhakti,or devotion; Janna, or knowledge; karma, or action; and hyena, or concentration – as paths toachieve moksha, the ultimate goal according to Hindu understanding.
SectionC1. Sati is described as a Hindu custom in India inwhich the widow was burnt to ashes on her dead husband’s pyre. Basically thecustom of Sati was believed to be a voluntary Hindu act in which the womanvoluntary decides to end her life with her husband after his death.
Sati is the practice among some Hinducommunities by which a recently widowed woman either voluntarily or by use offorce or coercion commits suicide as a result of her husband’s death. Thebest-known form of sati is when a woman burns to death on her husband’s funeralpyre. However other forms of sati exist, including being buried alivewith the husband’s corpse and drowning. SectionDHinduism is anIndian Dharma, or a way of life, widely practiced in South Aisa. Hinduismhas been called the oldest religion in the world, and some practitioners andscholars refer to it as Sanatana Dharma, “the eternal tradition,” orthe “eternal way,” beyond human history. Hinduism includes adiversity of ideas on spirituality and traditions, but has noecclesiastical order, no unquestionable religious authorities, no governingbody, no prophet(s) nor any binding holy book; Hindus can choose to bepolytheistic, pantheistic, monotheistic, monistic, agnostic, atheistic orhumanist.The position of women inHinduism is mixed and contradictory. Women who are mothers of a son, with theirhusbands still alive, are the most auspicious members of society.
It is whenand if their husbands die, that a woman may lose her status in society.One of the significant things in Hinduism is TheIndian Caste System. There are five stages.
Brahmins. They are the priestly classes, who are entitled tostudy the Vedas, perform rites and rituals for themselves and for others andobliged to observe the sacraments. They are the middlemen between gods and men.Kshatriyas. They are thewarrior class, who are commanded to protect the people, bestow gifts to theBrahmins, and offer sacrifices to gods and ancestors. Vaisyas: They are the merchants and peasant classes, who areexpected to tend cattle, offer sacrifices, study the Vedas, trade, lend moneyand cultivate the land. Shudras:They are the labor class, whose only duty is to serve the other three castes.
Chandalas: The lowest of the Shudraswere called chandalas or the impure ones. They were treated as untouchablesbecause