1. of expenditure on the plant its effect on

1.     Introduction
to former and future trends in maintenance:

Maintenance is the most critical aspect to a production
firm besides its research and development of a firm, though maintenance takes a
large portion of expenditure on the plant its effect on production and its
effects on various parameters are well known. Industrial maintenance has been
under drastic change in the last few decades due to rapid escalation in
technology and also the consumer demands, Hence the producer also realized the
alarming importance of maintenance and skill development in the firm, though
maintenance seem to be simple term its effects as discussed earlier have large
impact on the asset value management and improvement, and contains factors like
assets, management and technological amendments. In coming sections a
comparison of contemporary trends of maintenance is done and the future
maintenance trends of the Industry 4.0and the strategies behind these
respective ideas are discussed elaborately.

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2.   
Major maintenance strategies of the 21st
century:

Asset management is considered to be the key
of cost leadership and this is accomplished only by systematic and progressive
approach towards the respective maintenance function in a production plan, the
industry 3.0 mainly aimed towards automation of single machine entity and more
towards sustainability* and in this section the most implemented and tried and
tested strategic models from the past decade which are used until now are
discussed

Run
to failure:

This Strategy is the most basic form of
maintenance and the key strategy in it is to run the equipment and once the
service time of the machine is expired the machine may tend to break down the
required action is taken to rectify the problem or to replace the specific item,
this method makes it easy for the producers as the manufacturing process need
not specially concentrate on the maintenance until the equipment breaks down
but on his core competencies,

This method also has heritable disadvantages like
uncertainty in the breakdown time and no particular record keeping of the asset
management and the most important aspect the production plant is not the
probability of failure but the down time*, so there must always be a robust
solution for the unanticipated problem and effective skill set to solve the
problem.

Planned
preventive maintenance:

This type of maintenance is as the name
suggested is a planned and controlled process of maintenance where the
manufacturing unit mostly uses constantly scheduled maintenance of machines,
this process has gained importance due to raising demand s from the buyer and
the increased need of productivity and the industries requirement of gaining
over down times,

This is more predominant due to the raising
degree of automatic components and proper track maintenance of the industrial
equipment, the main advantage of this method is that the firm cuts of costs
incurred on the spare parts as a specific amount is pre ordered and kept at the
facility beforehand. But as every contemporary strategy the process has
disadvantages like unnecessary replacement of parts and no guarantee that the
product doesn’t fail, a lot of downtime is also observed due to the periodic
halt of machines for maintenance. Moreover, small sized companies might not
concentrate on managerial process other than core competencies as the
complexity increase due to employee size.

Opportunity
maintenance:

This is also a similar strategy that of
planned preventive maintenance, but the process has a strategic advantage over
the former as the process takes the strategic advantage of the time when a
particular machine has to be halted and during this time a planned maintenance
is done the advantage with this is that there need not be a scheduled
maintenance and can be done at flexible pace and frequency.

Condition
based maintenance:

It’s a process in which an specialized
maintenance schedule is done to each individual component based on the
condition of the asset or the machine, this saves unnecessary ripping of the
machine and also effective maintenance of inventory and other resources The
most critical aspects of the plant are safety, capital value and production
activity*,

Based on the level of interaction with
maintenance process and analytics is categorized as proactive, predictive
maintenance

Industry 4.0 and the current strategies:

The manufacturing and production industry in
the past two years have been facing a low growth rate with just 3.1 and 3.4
percent in 2016 and 2017 respectively*,
This shows the alarming need for the industry to implement cost effectiveness
in every aspect. And as mentioned earlier asset value management is crucial in
production presently and the industry is quickly adapting to the changing trend
and rapid pace of industry 4.0, When A survey conducted by PWC in over 2000
companies across 26 countries  on
digitalization of their plants it was found that  the metal and automotive industries are already
taking up new strategies of the incumbent revolution with around 35% and 41%*of
digitalization respectively and improvement of their production facilities
already and are expecting around 65-70% percent of digitalization before the
year  2020 and also 86% percent of these
respondents  claimed the belief that the
process of digitalization and new maintenance strategies will definitely payoff.

This certainly shows the market potential of predictive and other new maintenance
strategies. The new industry 4.0 format is also embracing upcoming technologies
like virtual and augmented reality in itself so as to provide clients and
workers a comprehensive understanding of their respective areas. Moreover the
core drivers of the industry 4.0 include aspects like IoT and remote operating
capabilities cloud computing and etc. * and the former mentioned survey also
states that 91% of the industries especially metal and automotive firms are
expectant to digitalize their firm before the year 2020,and 98%of these
companies expect to increase their efficiency by using augmented reality and
predictive maintenance ,this clearly shows that there is a lot of potential in
this segment for providers of service to these companies and  adapting to industry 4.0 is just not a buzz
word but is considered as  an ambitious
goal to reach in the coming years by all the firms, And the top ten key  drivers in this  process are big data analytics, machine
leasing, augmented reality, self-driven logistics, robot assisted production,
production line simulation, smart supply network, augmented work and
maintenance as service* and a few of these are discussed in the following part
of the essay.

Augmented
reality in maintenance:

Augmented reality is a process of superimposing
or projecting a digital image over a surface using a pair of specially designed
glasses and computer, this process is becoming so common now a day that it’s
also compatible in the high end smart phones. As mentioned earlier that the
augmented reality is a key driver of the upcoming years and can be used to
provide comprehensive solutions to maintenance issues, there could be effective
loss due to down town in finding the problem and solutions to refer the
existing problem and then to fix it, whereas in an augmented reality planform
machine data and troubleshooting steps are pre located and provide
comprehensive work procedure also, it was found that technicians with the help
of augmented reality could solve the same problem 56% faster and 47% faster
using  computer than the contemporary
method like referring manuals and experiences*. Its also evident that with help
of predictive maintenance and other digital transformations plants efficiency
and cycle time can be drastically improved.

Predictive
maintenance:

With rapid advancement in sensors and machine
learning interfaces and remote sensing the capabilities of the machine have
drastically changed and machines now have capabilities of predicting the upcoming
problem and reporting it to the concerned technician, this is considered so
important  as it saves the down time and
inventory as it’s a comprehensive form of CBM and the plant need not
necessarily store and maintain spares and mechanics, the current level employees
with higher education is only 19% in the industry where as technicians and this
is expected increase by only 5 % in the coming few years* so the demand for skilled
labor is going to drastically increase due increased complexity of machinery  this potential problem can be solved by using
augmented reality and use of predictive maintenance. And moreover, unskilled labor
is also believed to increase with these aids. Moreover, amongst the 8 key
drivers of industry labor and asset management and labor are most important and
these can and theses can be managed better with predictive maintenance, remote
monitoring, flexibility in machines and etc.

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