?1.1 it may have a positive impact on their

?1.1 Goal Model From the brief given for this assignment, I elicited my requirements based on their relevance regarding the system-to-be; Paperless Job. Although I feel that the system should have been modelled to play a more central role (by this I mean taking responsibility over the separate manager and employee interfaces that I created); I decided to depict the system where the employee and the manager have their own separate interfaces for a web application and mobile application. My main reason for doing so, is because I struggled to compartmentalise the two methods of use (web and mobile) while incorporating Paperless Job as a solution, without the diagram becoming noisy. I could have possibly modelled Paperless Job as a combination of both ‘Manager Web Interface’ and ‘Employee Web Interface’ whereby the user is identified through a goal right at the top of the model such as ‘Authenticate user’. This goal could then possibly branch down into the respective user’s needs.I modelled the system-to-be so that the majority of tasks are completed on the web application, while duplicating the monitoring and message capabilities to the mobile platform. This is because I feel that in the context of Paperless Job, the majority of users are going to be using a computer to print, so I found it unnecessary to model both platforms with all of the functionality. By allowing the users to check their performance and message centre on their mobile devices, it may have a positive impact on their commitment to improving their performance; as they can be reminded of their progress and potential rewards while they are away from their working environment; this is highlighted by the soft goals.  One feature that was not mentioned in the specification was a communication between an employee and their manager regarding special needs for printing; as such I modelled this as a resource ‘Special needs request’. The purpose for this is to enable the employee to go through Paperless Job to initiate a request, where it could possibly be logged, as opposed to other forms of communication which may not be addressed timely – this could have an effect on the employees motivation, as indicated by the soft goal ‘Employee Happy’. 1.2.1 Risk Model The above model aims to demonstrate the common concepts utilised in risk modelling; as such I opted to choose a goal from task 1.1 that would demonstrate the most risks – sending a message. Although not every potential event (risk) and treatment has been shown, hopefully the model demonstrates the concepts effectively.1.2.2 Context ModelContexts Identified from the goal model in 1.1Context Description TechnologyC1 Manager has access to a calendar that shows special dates such as open days or events Database, electronic calendarC2 Manager knows what department each employee is in DatabaseC3 Manager receives a special needs request from an employee Instant messaging, email relay systemC4 Each group (department) has their needs generated from an assumption or from previous data Database containing logs of printing, Assumption algorithmsC5 Reward criteria is based on legacy data DatabaseC6 Messages are partially dependent on the employees having the mobile application installed MobileC7 The employee has a profile which can be viewed by another user, which displays their information for comparisons and competition Profile system, Privacy settings, DatabaseC8 The meta data for an unusual print job is input manually, and the user inputs the correct data Formatting requirements I chose to model C1 because I felt it demonstrated the highest coverage of a context model, as it relied on the most statements and facts. The context was the most interesting as it had multiple criteria to be satisfied.1.3 Digital Motivation Model After identifying what parts of Paperless Job would be appropriate for digital motivation, I modelled them into what was created in part 1.1 (note that only the partial sections of the model are used). These goals (rewards and performance) can be used to implement some form of gamification; to possibly boost performance, motivation and commitment. I modelled it so that each employee has access to two leader boards, which would be for their individual performance, and their groups performance. Another motive that was modelled is ‘badge 1’ which stems from the employee activating their reminders, this motive could possibly take the form of a banner or icon which could be displayed on their profile; showing other users how long they have been on target for, or how much paper they have saved in a set period of time.2.1 Use case diagram Based on part of Paperless Job as illustrated in section 1.1, I created this use case diagram which demonstrates the use cases for ‘Manager Web Interface’. I chose this part of the model as it had the most functionality out of the four boundaries, and that it would enable the modelling of a malicious actor, misuse cases and an offstage actor; these three concepts could have only been partially covered if I created a use case for the ‘Employee Web Interface’.2.4 Feature Model The feature model I created aims to cover all features that were identified from the specification and my goal model created in part 1.1. One feature that may need some clarification is the excludes relation between the communication features and the groups features. My thinking is that if a manager is selecting groups based on needs, they may have a pre-determined way of knowing if an employee requires this, or they may be notified through the communication feature, which could override the former.The IT contexts that I identified can be separated further into technical requirements for both the web and mobile application; for mobile, a minimum IT context is shown in the model as iOS5>, AndroidMarshmallow>. These contexts are intended to show how the system should be implemented; taking into consideration that mobile devices that do not support at least the minimum of these contexts will not be developed for. These context conditions can influence the delivery of a configuration (Carlos et al., 2009). These contexts could also be expanded further to provoke new business contexts 1, such as: staff has a supported mobile device. For the web application, the IT Contexts ‘flash enabled browser’ and ‘forwarding’ are identified; this could possibly have an effect later in the software’s development cycle, as these features will be accounted for. Without identification and consideration of all of the possible IT contexts, the delivered system may be far off what was intended. The two business contexts that I identified may play a role in this software’s lifecycle. The first (bc1) is aimed towards the availability of real time data for a manager to analyse performance. This is a contextual factor as it may rely on the employees giving their consent through their privacy settings. This context also relies on the system having operated for long enough to collect the data to show to the manager – as noted earlier 1, this could provoke further thought into expanding contexts relating to the required technologies. The second identified business context (bc2) somewhat relates to the first as it is to do with privacy settings, this could help identify if it is required to give employees the ability to control a variety of aspects relating to their privacy, while enabling other features to work effectively (bc1). I feel that business and IT contexts can provide insight into whether optional features are feasible, and if so what must be considered to implement them effectively (Hartmann and Trew, 2008). It may become apparent through the use of contexts that some features may not add great value; in terms that the contexts may have too many pre-requisites to render them advantageous. 3. The effect of Transparency in the workplaceTransparency puts an emphasis on coordinating the flow of tasks as a way of lowering the likelihood of errors (Kirchmer et al. 2013); this idea can be contextualised to the workplace as a team working towards a common goal – if the process is not documented transparently, team members can start blaming each other for aspects that contained errors. This short essay aims to argue the positive effect transparency can have on an employee’s motivation.Flikkema and Cambou (2017) suggest that the potential of a company is completely dependent on the monitoring of individuals, however, an employee must feel though they can trust the company if they are going to put forward a positive engagement (Clapon, 2016). If transparency is to have a positive effect on an employee, a company must be completely honest with their intentions for implementing new technologies. An employee may possibly be demotivated if one day they arrive at work to find out that a new system which requires them to bio-metrically scan themselves into their desktop every hour has been implemented, they may be left wondering why, and could possibly feel confused and like their trust has been betrayed. Clapon (2016) also states that the company ‘Buffer’ gave data logging wristbands to employees in an effort to help them their wellbeing and physical accomplishments, to promote the idea that the company values every employee individually. This straight-forward approach to employee engagement can have highly advantageous results to daily performances.In relation to this assignment, the creators of Paperless Job should thoroughly consider being completely transparent when it comes to what data they are collecting from its employees, and what they are using it for – this honesty will go a long way – “Engaged employees are in the game for the sake of the game; they believe in the cause of the organisation” (Paul Marclano, personal communication, 2015).When we look at what a goal model sets out to achieve, it is not explicitly concerned with the transparency requirements – however, a goal model can prove a useful tool when considering potential transparency issues with a new development. Goal models use soft goals, which could correlate loosely to transparency, as Soft goals are goals that do not have a clear-cut criterion for their satisfaction (Mylopoulos et al. 1999). I feel that soft goals re-enforce a basic level of transparency as they have positive and negative contributors, as such, if these contributors are correctly identified, the need for transparency can be considered even at this early stage of a software’s life cycle.DMML aims to implement possible methods of motivation by introducing motives to a model. These motives can come in the form of leader boards or rewards. DMML shows purpose towards some form of gamification, which will undoubtedly require data logging. Perhaps an improvement to DMML could be the identification of what data is going to be needed to enable these incentives to be implemented – and their ramifications on transparency when it comes to delivering the product. Following this, it could be useful to consider possible interface level concerns when it comes to transparency, such as terms of service agreement and permissions. These could be introduced to DMML by introducing a ‘middle-man’ task between a task and a motive.  ReferencesCetina, C., Giner, P., Fons, J. and Pelechano, V., 2009. Using Feature Models for Developing Self-Configuring Smart Homes – IEEE Conference Publication online. Ieeexplore.ieee.org. Available from: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp==4976601 Accessed 2 Jan 2018.Clapon, P., 2016. Why Business Transparency is Key for Employee Engagement online. Hppy. Available from: https://gethppy.com/company-culture/business-transparency-is-key Accessed 3 Jan 2018.Flikkema, P. and Cambou, B., 2017. When things are sensors for cloud AI: Protecting privacy through data collection transparency in the age of digital assistants – IEEE Conference Publication online. Ieeexplore.ieee.org. Available from: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp==8016284 Accessed 3 Jan 2018.Hartmann, H. and Trew, T., 2008. Using Feature Diagrams with Context Variability to Model Multiple Product Lines for Software Supply Chains – IEEE Conference Publication online. Ieeexplore.ieee.org. Available from: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp==4626836 Accessed 2 Jan 2018.Hosseini, M., 2016. Engineering of Transparency Requirements in Business Information Systems online. Thesis, PhD. Bournemouth University.Mylopoulos, M., Chung, L., Yu, E,., 1999. From object-oriented to goal-oriented requirements analysis – Communications of the ACM online. Available from: https://dl-acm-org.libezproxy.bournemouth.ac.uk/citation.cfm?id=293165=849544683=75350670 Accessed 3 Jan 2018Kirchmer, M., Laengle, S. and Masias, V., 2013. Transparency-Driven Business Process Management in Healthcare Settings Leading Edge – IEEE Journals & Magazine online. Ieeexplore.ieee.org. Available from: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp==6679328 Accessed 3 Jan 2018.


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