of Denmark subsidizes purchase of FCVs with exempting them from registration
taxes. The imposed taxes are usually up to 180% of the vehicle price 57. This tax
exemption means that the government provides indirect support of more than EUR 23,000
for each FCV 58. However,
from 2016, BEVs are included in the same tax scheme of petrol and diesel cars.
The increase in registration tax is gradually phased in, at 20% of the full tax
in 2016, 40% in 2017, 65% in 2018, 90% in 2019 and 100% in 2020. Hydrogen and fuel cell?powered vehicles are
exempt from registration tax until the end of 2018 59. This has
been one of the reasons of the drop in electric car sales (-68%) observed in
2016 in Denmark 19. As of
2017, Denmark is introducing a purchase tax rebate on electric cars based on
battery capacity of USD 225/kWh up to a maximum of 45kWh 19. Exemption
of FCVs from registration tax is continued until the end of 2018 60.
Public funding for R&D and demonstration of refueling stations are
available in Denmark which range from DKK1
0.5 – 15 million 61. Companies
in Denmark supplying EV charging on a commercial basis can receive an
electricity tax rebate of approximately DKK 1 per kWh 62.
As of September 2017, there are 10 HRSs in operation in Denmark 63. As of July
2017, there are 2,030 publicly-accessible EV charging stations in Denmark 64.
As of September 2017, there were 68 FCVs in Denmark 63. In 2015, there
were 8100 EVs in Denmark 62. Table 23 shows
Denmark’s target for number of HRSs and FCVs for 2025 and 2050 65.
23. Denmark’s target for
number of HRSs and FCVs for 2025 and 2050 65
Number of HRSs
Number of FCVs
50% of car fleet
Denmark’s energy projection for 2050 aims
almost 100% fossil independence. While 50% of the car fleet is projected to be
FCVs and 45% is projected to be BEVs and PHEVs, a margin of 5% is left for
conventional fuels 57.
These projections were considered in 2014 and may change due to the change of
Denmark’s support policy toward electric vehicles.
In Sweden, a
premium purchase rebate is granted for the purchase of a new electric or hybrid
electric vehicle 59:
40,000 for cars with zero CO2 emissions
– SEK 20,000
for cars with CO2 emissions between 1 and 50g/km
exemption from annual circulation tax for electric vehicles with a maximum fuel
economy of 37 kWh/100km is also available in Sweden.
HRSs development in Sweden are supported with
funding and contribution from European and local institutions (municipalities
for instance). Sweden offers financial support for the development of charging
infrastructure which amounted to SEK 130 million in 2015 19.
October 2017, there are 4 HRSs in Sweden 54.
Exchange rate for Danish Krone in December 6th, 2017 is 1 DKK ~ 0.16
rate for Swedish Krona in December 6th, 2017 is 1 DKK ~ 0.12 USD