1.1 in registration tax is gradually phased in, at

1.1    DenmarkGovernmentof Denmark subsidizes purchase of FCVs with exempting them from registrationtaxes. The imposed taxes are usually up to 180% of the vehicle price 57.

This taxexemption means that the government provides indirect support of more than EUR 23,000for each FCV 58. However,from 2016, BEVs are included in the same tax scheme of petrol and diesel cars.The increase in registration tax is gradually phased in, at 20% of the full taxin 2016, 40% in 2017, 65% in 2018, 90% in 2019 and 100% in 2020.

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  Hydrogen and fuel cell?powered vehicles areexempt from registration tax until the end of 2018 59. This hasbeen one of the reasons of the drop in electric car sales (-68%) observed in2016 in Denmark 19. As of2017, Denmark is introducing a purchase tax rebate on electric cars based onbattery capacity of USD 225/kWh up to a maximum of 45kWh 19. Exemptionof FCVs from registration tax is continued until the end of 2018 60.Public funding for R&D and demonstration of refueling stations areavailable in Denmark which range from DKK10.5 – 15 million 61.

Companiesin Denmark supplying EV charging on a commercial basis can receive anelectricity tax rebate of approximately DKK 1 per kWh 62.As of September 2017, there are 10 HRSs in operation in Denmark 63. As of July2017, there are 2,030 publicly-accessible EV charging stations in Denmark 64.

As of September 2017, there were 68 FCVs in Denmark 63. In 2015, therewere 8100 EVs in Denmark 62. Table 23 showsDenmark’s target for number of HRSs and FCVs for 2025 and 2050 65. Table23. Denmark’s target fornumber of HRSs and FCVs for 2025 and 2050 65 Year  2025 2050 Number of HRSs 100-200 500-1000 Number of FCVs 50,000-100,000 50% of car fleet  Denmark’s energy projection for 2050 aimsalmost 100% fossil independence.

While 50% of the car fleet is projected to beFCVs and 45% is projected to be BEVs and PHEVs, a margin of 5% is left forconventional fuels 57.These projections were considered in 2014 and may change due to the change ofDenmark’s support policy toward electric vehicles. 1.2    SwedenIn Sweden, apremium purchase rebate is granted for the purchase of a new electric or hybridelectric vehicle 59:- SEK240,000 for cars with zero CO2 emissions – SEK 20,000for cars with CO2 emissions between 1 and 50g/km A five-yearexemption from annual circulation tax for electric vehicles with a maximum fueleconomy of 37 kWh/100km is also available in Sweden.

HRSs development in Sweden are supported withfunding and contribution from European and local institutions (municipalitiesfor instance). Sweden offers financial support for the development of charginginfrastructure which amounted to SEK 130 million in 2015 19.As ofOctober 2017, there are 4 HRSs in Sweden 54. 1Exchange rate for Danish Krone in December 6th, 2017 is 1 DKK ~ 0.16USD2 Exchangerate for Swedish Krona in December 6th, 2017 is 1 DKK ~ 0.12 USD