1.0 internal processes. Motivation ranges from different levels. People

1.0 Introduction:

 

In this report, I will explain how a manager could use
motivational theory to improve and better manage their employees. This includes
getting the most out of their employees ultimately improving efficiency. I will
discuss the different types of motivation giving the manager a wide range of
techniques and the results impacted by them.

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Motivation is described as a force which directs a person or
gives a person direction. It affects the behaviour of the individual. It creates
a desire to achieve a goal. Motivation are usually internal processes. Motivation
ranges from different levels. People can be foremost motivated by important
things which as an example is the need to just survive.
These includes people being motivated by safety needs: paying rent or
eating. This means you would be extra motivated to find work instead of being
motivated to learn how to ride a bike. That is the most basic motivation.
Motivation exceeds to wanting further in life. Having already achieved a
comfort level, basic needs and social and esteem levels other internal
processes which motivate you come into place. This includes Ego and personal
needs. This could mean that you would want to work hard to achieve buying the
latest car or a big house. Ultimately you are motivated by what level you are
on whether that be a basic level further down the pyramid or something higher
up. This is all related to your psychological or mental requirements. (Burns, 2017)

Managers who are recruiting employees ought to look for
employees who are motivated. This has many benefits to the manager in the way
that self-motivated employees provide them with a huge favour. Employees who
are self-motivated require little direction and not much supervision to get
their job accomplished in a professional and also timely manner. Ultimately
this proves to be efficient to the manager which saves money which is usually
the goal for every business. (Loretto,
2017)

 

 

2.0 Multiculturalism:

 

As years go on the UK has increased their multicultural society.
This has occurred due to many different demographic changes. The main
demographic change that has impacted the increased multi culture has been
immigration. This has increased significantly in the past 20 years. People from
around Europe and the rest of the world have migrated to the UK. This has a
number of impacts on motivation and managers. Immigrants are more motivated to
do work harder and already are self-motivated Sealey, 2017. This makes them a good choice for managers to seek
to recruit them. Immigrants are according to BBC “highly motivated and have
ambitious parents”. This is proven by Steve Jobs as his family came to the US
from Syria in the 1950s and proved to be one of the most effective and
motivated people in the world with his success being the founder of Apple. This
makes immigrants good choice for employers and makes them an efficient choice.
Another positive about a manager recruiting an immigrant is that they are
motivated and unlike other employees per say in the UK they are grateful for
minimum wage. This relates to Maslow’s theory of hierarchy of needs in which
different people value different things. They have little requirements and will
get the job done with little complaining. This is because of the fact that
migrants usually migrate from poorer countries in which the standards are much
lower. This ultimately impacts them in the way that they feel grateful for the
opportunity to be working and work harder. Another factor which improves the
motivation of immigrated employees is that the minimum pay that they would
receive is usually a much higher pay compared to what they would usually earn.
The multicultural society in the UK has therefore benefited managers in terms
of being able to recruit reliable and effective employees. Immigrants and the
pattern of motivation not only applies to just employees but also to immigrant
students. It is said that they are often highly motivated too. According to the
BBC again, their children are more “likely to take on academic challenges” as
well as attempting to “solve more complex problems” and “stretch themselves”.
These students will eventually become employees and this shows that they have
the essential skills to be a good option for managers. (Schleicher, 2016)

 

3.0 Motivation Theories:

In this section I will discuss three types of theories. The
three theories I will discuss include satisfaction theories, incentive theories
and finally intrinsic theories. These theories could be applied to better
manage employees.

 

3.1 Satisfaction Theories:

This is based around the statement that a “satisfied worker
is a productive one”. When an employee is satisfied they work harder. This
satisfied worker also stays loyal to the organisation or business and is
mentally healthier because they are content with the job and work. A very good
example of satisfaction theory is the Two Factory Theory – Frederick Herzberg. This
is based on two factors which are Motivators and Hygiene factors. Herzberg set
out to understand employee satisfaction. He went on to ask employees regarding
how they felt about their jobs. This therefore formed the basis for the two-factor
theory. He found that people gave different responses depending on how good or
bad they felt about their occupation.  In
an article that Herzberg published which is called “One more time: How do you
Motivate employees”, Herzberg drew conclusions from these findings which proved
to be instrumental. Motivators are items that cause job satisfaction. Hygiene
factors are different factors that don’t bring satisfaction but at the same
time they prevent employees from being not satisfied.  Examples of Herzberg’s motivators include the
work being completed being interesting, the working being completed being
challenging, opportunities for achievement, being recognised within the
workplace, responsibility and finally your growth as a person e.g. developing
new skills and learning. Examples of Herzberg’s Hygiene factors include earning
money, status, having a reliable job, substantial working conditions and the companies’
policy.  Ultimately, the model of the two
factor theories shows that when you increase employee satisfaction, the
increase in employee motivation follows resulting in an efficient and very
increased employee performance. (Burns,
2017)

 A study based upon Herzberg’s
two factor theory was tested on university teachers. 300 university teachers
were chosen from four sampled universities.  The findings of the study found that university
were happy with both types of factors however the motivation the university
teachers had were dependant on how well fulfilled the hygiene factors were. It
was concluded that the university teachers consider them motivation for them. (Ghazi et al., 2017) 

As a manager in the modern multicultural environment,
managers must ensure that the hygiene factors for example are suitable for all
cultures. This is because different cultures hygiene factors can vary. A
Muslims hygiene factor may include having an extended lunch on Fridays to
include Friday prayers compared with a non-Muslim who will be happy with a
normal lunch. Managers would need to take this into account.

3.2 Incentive Theories:

 

This is based around theory of people increasing their
effort in order to obtain a reward that they would want to get. The rewards
that they want to get are their motivators. Examples of this is money and
status. Very good example of an incentive theories is the X and Y theories –
Douglas McGregor. McGregor states that you are either a Theory X or Theory Y
manager. Based upon this will influence how you result in motivating the
employees. The different Theory Managers (X and Y) differently believe what
their employees are like.  A theory X
manager believes negatively about their employees. They believe that their
employees are lazy and avoid work at all possible occasions. They also believe they
don’t like responsibility and only work for money and nothing else. However, a theory
Y manager takes a more positive assumption on the employees. Theory Y managers
believe that their employees take pride in their work and try and are able to
work hard also in the way of solving problems and taking responsibility.  The result of the theory X therefore creates a
more punitive atmosphere and is full of threat and mistrust. This is compared
with Theory Y which is filled with Trust and collaboration. (Burns, 2017) Depending on how you as the manager believe your employees
are motivated if they get satisfaction and pride from their work or they see it
as a job and are simply doing the work for money decides which Theory you
should stick to. If they don’t get satisfaction from their work and they are
just working for the money then you should use the Theory X approach which
hands on and authorities. An example of a business that would usually use the
theory X approach is a warehouse type job. This is compared with a Theory Y
which would be more like a job at google. This is where you can see your
employees take pride in their work and take ownership for their work. This will
result in the employees doing their work themselves instead of seeking help and
finding ways out. Theory X managers take a negative view and as a result the
employees need to be punished constantly or rewarded to ensure they compete
tasks. Theory Y managers have the opposite and are positive and encourages
collaborative relationships. Ultimately it depends on the employees and how
they are and the type of business that the managers are managing in order to
make the judgement of what type of theory to follow when managing. The
assumption you make and how you work out what the needs and requirements of
what people want will influence which management style you select out of Theory
Y or Theory X. (Theory
X and Theory Y: Understanding People’s Motivations, 2017). Managers
would also need to take into account for a modern multicultural society that
when punishing employees in does not interfere with their religion for example making
a person of Sikhs faith not take the day off for Diwali.

 

3.3 Intrinsic Theories

 

This
is based around motivation that is focused on internal rewards. You are
motivated because you are satisfied inside by what you are doing. A good
example of an Intrinsic theory is Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. This shows a
five layered or five-tiered model. It is often displayed in a pyramid. It is
displayed as basic needs from the bottom and then once that level is achieved
it goes up. Maslow states that people are motivated to attain different needs
which are taken as a priority over others. (Mcleod, 2017)

 

 

3.3.1
Psychological Needs (Basic Needs)

 

This
is the most basic and the first level of Maslow’s pyramid. This is the
motivation that we get to simply just work for food and water. This level is
just for simply surviving. Other factors include breathing, sex sleep, adequate
breaks, holidays, time for employees to recuperate, homeostasis and excretion.
After this need has been accomplished we then feel the need for the next level
which is security. From a manager point a view fulfilling someone’s
philological needs including having to pay the employees a sufficient amount so
that it covers the necessities(Burns, 2017).. In a modern multicultural society employees may struggle
to pay the extra amount of money for their religious dietary requirements so
the manager must ensure that they pay their employees adequately.

 

3.3.2
Safety Needs

 

This
is also basic however it is a step up from the psychological needs. This
includes living in a safe area, ensuring that you have a reliable job and
aren’t in any threat to lose and Medical insurance. This is at the stage in
which employees need to be safe from harm after they have accomplished the
basic needs. Managers must ensure that the environment that the employees are
working in is safe. As a manager, you must ensure also to provide the
necessarily protective clothing if required to ensure that the employees or
safe. The tools and equipment must also be safe. (Burns, 2017) In a modern multicultural
society, the manager must ensure that the safety doesn’t interfere with culture
such as Sikhs who wear turbans if they are made to wear safety helmets for
example. This must be taken into account and a method around it must be
implemented.

 

 

 

3.3.3
Belongingness and love needs

 

This
is the next stage in the pyramid starts focusing on psychological needs. This
is by starting on social and belonging needs. The need for friends and being
part of group starts occurring. This starts to happen when employees want
people to discuss about their feelings, including their fears and joys.
Employees start wanting solidarity. In order to ensure this need is met for
employees. Managers must highly encourage individuals to make groups and make
employees work together. Managers can also in a way to ensure people work
together by selecting the times of breaks at the same time so they can get to
know each other in a non-working environment too. Managers can also host events
outside of work so that they can get know each other outside work. This will
allow them to create friends too.

 

3.3.4
Esteem

 

This
next stage in the pyramid is regarding esteem needs. This is different factors
such as reputation and recognition. This stage is regarding enjoying a personal
status as when you gain a personal status it gives you a sense of identity.
Managers must ensure that they are rewarding their employees regularly to boost
their employee’s self-esteem. This will allow them to gain self-esteem. Methods
that employees can reward their employees include using individual bonuses or
ensuring that they have employee of the month in their workplace. When
rewarding employees, managers must ensure that it is adequate to a modern
multicultural society in the way that they cannot give out wine. Which is a
common prize. They have to accommodate to other faiths who can’t drink that. (Burns,
2017)

 

3.3.5
Self Actualisation

 

The
final stage in Maslow’s pyramid is Self- Actualisation. This is when all the
other stages are completed the requirement inside the employee to the best that
they can be. This is by using all the talent and resources that they can
possibly use. This also links with knowing that the employees have done the
best possible they can. They as a result feel completely satisfied. As a
manager, the most important thing you could ensure you do is recognising the
hard work that employees put in. This results in the employees thinking that
they have done the best job they can. (Burns, 2017)

 

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