1.0 Introduction: In this report, I will explain how a manager could usemotivational theory to improve and better manage their employees. This includesgetting the most out of their employees ultimately improving efficiency. I willdiscuss the different types of motivation giving the manager a wide range oftechniques and the results impacted by them. Motivation is described as a force which directs a person orgives a person direction. It affects the behaviour of the individual. It createsa desire to achieve a goal.
Motivation are usually internal processes. Motivationranges from different levels. People can be foremost motivated by importantthings which as an example is the need to just survive.These includes people being motivated by safety needs: paying rent oreating. This means you would be extra motivated to find work instead of beingmotivated to learn how to ride a bike.
That is the most basic motivation.Motivation exceeds to wanting further in life. Having already achieved acomfort level, basic needs and social and esteem levels other internalprocesses which motivate you come into place.
This includes Ego and personalneeds. This could mean that you would want to work hard to achieve buying thelatest car or a big house. Ultimately you are motivated by what level you areon whether that be a basic level further down the pyramid or something higherup. This is all related to your psychological or mental requirements. (Burns, 2017)Managers who are recruiting employees ought to look foremployees who are motivated. This has many benefits to the manager in the waythat self-motivated employees provide them with a huge favour. Employees whoare self-motivated require little direction and not much supervision to gettheir job accomplished in a professional and also timely manner. Ultimatelythis proves to be efficient to the manager which saves money which is usuallythe goal for every business.
(Loretto,2017) 2.0 Multiculturalism: As years go on the UK has increased their multicultural society.This has occurred due to many different demographic changes.
The maindemographic change that has impacted the increased multi culture has beenimmigration. This has increased significantly in the past 20 years. People fromaround Europe and the rest of the world have migrated to the UK.
This has anumber of impacts on motivation and managers. Immigrants are more motivated todo work harder and already are self-motivated Sealey, 2017. This makes them a good choice for managers to seekto recruit them. Immigrants are according to BBC “highly motivated and haveambitious parents”. This is proven by Steve Jobs as his family came to the USfrom Syria in the 1950s and proved to be one of the most effective andmotivated people in the world with his success being the founder of Apple. Thismakes immigrants good choice for employers and makes them an efficient choice.
Another positive about a manager recruiting an immigrant is that they aremotivated and unlike other employees per say in the UK they are grateful forminimum wage. This relates to Maslow’s theory of hierarchy of needs in whichdifferent people value different things. They have little requirements and willget the job done with little complaining.
This is because of the fact thatmigrants usually migrate from poorer countries in which the standards are muchlower. This ultimately impacts them in the way that they feel grateful for theopportunity to be working and work harder. Another factor which improves themotivation of immigrated employees is that the minimum pay that they wouldreceive is usually a much higher pay compared to what they would usually earn.
The multicultural society in the UK has therefore benefited managers in termsof being able to recruit reliable and effective employees. Immigrants and thepattern of motivation not only applies to just employees but also to immigrantstudents. It is said that they are often highly motivated too.
According to theBBC again, their children are more “likely to take on academic challenges” aswell as attempting to “solve more complex problems” and “stretch themselves”.These students will eventually become employees and this shows that they havethe essential skills to be a good option for managers. (Schleicher, 2016) 3.0 Motivation Theories:In this section I will discuss three types of theories. Thethree theories I will discuss include satisfaction theories, incentive theoriesand finally intrinsic theories. These theories could be applied to bettermanage employees. 3.1 Satisfaction Theories:This is based around the statement that a “satisfied workeris a productive one”.
When an employee is satisfied they work harder. Thissatisfied worker also stays loyal to the organisation or business and ismentally healthier because they are content with the job and work. A very goodexample of satisfaction theory is the Two Factory Theory – Frederick Herzberg. Thisis based on two factors which are Motivators and Hygiene factors. Herzberg setout to understand employee satisfaction. He went on to ask employees regardinghow they felt about their jobs.
This therefore formed the basis for the two-factortheory. He found that people gave different responses depending on how good orbad they felt about their occupation. Inan article that Herzberg published which is called “One more time: How do youMotivate employees”, Herzberg drew conclusions from these findings which provedto be instrumental.
Motivators are items that cause job satisfaction. Hygienefactors are different factors that don’t bring satisfaction but at the sametime they prevent employees from being not satisfied. Examples of Herzberg’s motivators include thework being completed being interesting, the working being completed beingchallenging, opportunities for achievement, being recognised within theworkplace, responsibility and finally your growth as a person e.g. developingnew skills and learning. Examples of Herzberg’s Hygiene factors include earningmoney, status, having a reliable job, substantial working conditions and the companies’policy. Ultimately, the model of the twofactor theories shows that when you increase employee satisfaction, theincrease in employee motivation follows resulting in an efficient and veryincreased employee performance. (Burns,2017) A study based upon Herzberg’stwo factor theory was tested on university teachers.
300 university teacherswere chosen from four sampled universities. The findings of the study found that universitywere happy with both types of factors however the motivation the universityteachers had were dependant on how well fulfilled the hygiene factors were. Itwas concluded that the university teachers consider them motivation for them. (Ghazi et al.
, 2017) As a manager in the modern multicultural environment,managers must ensure that the hygiene factors for example are suitable for allcultures. This is because different cultures hygiene factors can vary. AMuslims hygiene factor may include having an extended lunch on Fridays toinclude Friday prayers compared with a non-Muslim who will be happy with anormal lunch. Managers would need to take this into account. 3.2 Incentive Theories: This is based around theory of people increasing theireffort in order to obtain a reward that they would want to get. The rewardsthat they want to get are their motivators.
Examples of this is money andstatus. Very good example of an incentive theories is the X and Y theories –Douglas McGregor. McGregor states that you are either a Theory X or Theory Ymanager. Based upon this will influence how you result in motivating theemployees.
The different Theory Managers (X and Y) differently believe whattheir employees are like. A theory Xmanager believes negatively about their employees. They believe that theiremployees are lazy and avoid work at all possible occasions. They also believe theydon’t like responsibility and only work for money and nothing else. However, a theoryY manager takes a more positive assumption on the employees. Theory Y managersbelieve that their employees take pride in their work and try and are able towork hard also in the way of solving problems and taking responsibility. The result of the theory X therefore creates amore punitive atmosphere and is full of threat and mistrust. This is comparedwith Theory Y which is filled with Trust and collaboration.
(Burns, 2017) Depending on how you as the manager believe your employeesare motivated if they get satisfaction and pride from their work or they see itas a job and are simply doing the work for money decides which Theory youshould stick to. If they don’t get satisfaction from their work and they arejust working for the money then you should use the Theory X approach whichhands on and authorities. An example of a business that would usually use thetheory X approach is a warehouse type job. This is compared with a Theory Ywhich would be more like a job at google. This is where you can see youremployees take pride in their work and take ownership for their work.
This willresult in the employees doing their work themselves instead of seeking help andfinding ways out. Theory X managers take a negative view and as a result theemployees need to be punished constantly or rewarded to ensure they competetasks. Theory Y managers have the opposite and are positive and encouragescollaborative relationships. Ultimately it depends on the employees and howthey are and the type of business that the managers are managing in order tomake the judgement of what type of theory to follow when managing. Theassumption you make and how you work out what the needs and requirements ofwhat people want will influence which management style you select out of TheoryY or Theory X. (TheoryX and Theory Y: Understanding People’s Motivations, 2017). Managerswould also need to take into account for a modern multicultural society thatwhen punishing employees in does not interfere with their religion for example makinga person of Sikhs faith not take the day off for Diwali.
3.3 Intrinsic Theories Thisis based around motivation that is focused on internal rewards. You aremotivated because you are satisfied inside by what you are doing. A goodexample of an Intrinsic theory is Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. This shows afive layered or five-tiered model. It is often displayed in a pyramid. It isdisplayed as basic needs from the bottom and then once that level is achievedit goes up.
Maslow states that people are motivated to attain different needswhich are taken as a priority over others. (Mcleod, 2017) 3.3.
1Psychological Needs (Basic Needs) Thisis the most basic and the first level of Maslow’s pyramid. This is themotivation that we get to simply just work for food and water. This level isjust for simply surviving.
Other factors include breathing, sex sleep, adequatebreaks, holidays, time for employees to recuperate, homeostasis and excretion.After this need has been accomplished we then feel the need for the next levelwhich is security. From a manager point a view fulfilling someone’sphilological needs including having to pay the employees a sufficient amount sothat it covers the necessities(Burns, 2017).. In a modern multicultural society employees may struggleto pay the extra amount of money for their religious dietary requirements sothe manager must ensure that they pay their employees adequately. 3.3.2Safety Needs Thisis also basic however it is a step up from the psychological needs.
Thisincludes living in a safe area, ensuring that you have a reliable job andaren’t in any threat to lose and Medical insurance. This is at the stage inwhich employees need to be safe from harm after they have accomplished thebasic needs. Managers must ensure that the environment that the employees areworking in is safe. As a manager, you must ensure also to provide thenecessarily protective clothing if required to ensure that the employees orsafe. The tools and equipment must also be safe. (Burns, 2017) In a modern multiculturalsociety, the manager must ensure that the safety doesn’t interfere with culturesuch as Sikhs who wear turbans if they are made to wear safety helmets forexample. This must be taken into account and a method around it must beimplemented. 3.
3.3Belongingness and love needs Thisis the next stage in the pyramid starts focusing on psychological needs. Thisis by starting on social and belonging needs. The need for friends and beingpart of group starts occurring. This starts to happen when employees wantpeople to discuss about their feelings, including their fears and joys.
Employees start wanting solidarity. In order to ensure this need is met foremployees. Managers must highly encourage individuals to make groups and makeemployees work together. Managers can also in a way to ensure people worktogether by selecting the times of breaks at the same time so they can get toknow each other in a non-working environment too. Managers can also host eventsoutside of work so that they can get know each other outside work.
This willallow them to create friends too. 3.3.4Esteem Thisnext stage in the pyramid is regarding esteem needs.
This is different factorssuch as reputation and recognition. This stage is regarding enjoying a personalstatus as when you gain a personal status it gives you a sense of identity.Managers must ensure that they are rewarding their employees regularly to boosttheir employee’s self-esteem. This will allow them to gain self-esteem. Methodsthat employees can reward their employees include using individual bonuses orensuring that they have employee of the month in their workplace. Whenrewarding employees, managers must ensure that it is adequate to a modernmulticultural society in the way that they cannot give out wine.
Which is acommon prize. They have to accommodate to other faiths who can’t drink that. (Burns,2017) 3.3.5Self Actualisation Thefinal stage in Maslow’s pyramid is Self- Actualisation.
This is when all theother stages are completed the requirement inside the employee to the best thatthey can be. This is by using all the talent and resources that they canpossibly use. This also links with knowing that the employees have done thebest possible they can. They as a result feel completely satisfied. As amanager, the most important thing you could ensure you do is recognising thehard work that employees put in. This results in the employees thinking thatthey have done the best job they can.